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  1. The French philosopher Jacques Derrida, in his work “The Ghosts of Marx” (1993), for the first time introduces the term “chontology”to describe a special type of being of communism. Based in his work on the first lines of the Communist Manifesto: “A ghost haunts Europe — the ghost of communism”, Derrida criticizes the concept of F.Fukuyama on the end of history and the death of communism. Derrida asks the question: “if Communism has always been a ghost, what does it mean to say that it has died today?”, and then develops his theory of ghostology (named so by analogy with ontology — the doctrine of being, but applied to ghosts — haunt), which describes a special type of being of a ghost as an entity that is neither alive nor inanimate at the same time. In other words, chontology is a term that denotes a ghost that neither exists nor does not exist at the same time. A ghost is a trace from the past that lives in the present.�

    Nowadays, chontology is no longer a description of the existence of communism, but a term used in culture. Most often, it is understood as ” longing for a future that never came.”

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