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  1. In simple words, Klein was annoyed that people couldn't see color, so he decided to force them.

    In the 1950s, Klein was actively involved in large monochromes-which, by the way, coincided with the beginning of international standardization of pigment production and the development of color field painting in the United States, so the topic was probably in the air. In 1955, Klein gave a large exhibition of his works, “Proposition monochromes” in Paris — which was not exactly poorly received, but it was difficult for people to understand that color has an independent aesthetic beyond its use in objects — an idea that was present even in the Middle Ages (see Kessler in “Seeing Medieval Art”), but for some reason causes difficulties to this day.

    Klein decided to find the most intense form of pigment, and together with E. Adam developed a new form of artificial ultramarine, which can be applied using rubber (instead of linseed oil, which mutes the pigment). The result was eleven monochrome paintings, exhibited in '57 as a continuation of the' 55 exhibition.

    There is only one word in the Russian language that describes the effect of pure, un-silenced ultramarine, and this word is filtered by the auto-moderator. You need to see it. For someone familiar with the history of art, ultramarine is hundreds of references from the Epic of Gilgamesh, it is the color of Christ and the Virgin, it is Perugino, Titian and Vermeer. For Klein, ultramarine, among other things, was a liberation — that if the color outweighs everything else, then it means that it is more primary than everything else.

    The contrast between the 57th and 55th exhibitions is difficult to overestimate — the new works proved to be more than convincing, and helped form the foundation of a separate European approach to coloristics, very different from what was happening in the USA at that time with Rothko, Frankenthaler, Newman and others. Klein is essentially a descendant of the early avant — garde; what matters to him is the directness with which color is present and manifested, rather than just how one feels it. In addition, the fact that people can't be trusted to sense anything, Klein already found out in ' 55.

    It is also worth noting in the margins that these eleven paintings have a fairly long track: from white works by Rayman to Anish Kapoor with his stupid copyright on Black 3.0.

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