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  1. Science art (it is more correct to use the term Art & Science) attracts attention by going beyond the boundaries of the art world, penetrating into scientific laboratories, and also serves as an occasion to discuss the nature of art and science, their relationship.

    One of the first discoveries at the junction of scientific and creative spheres can be called the creation of electric musical instruments. The first such instrument, the theremin, was invented by Soviet engineer and musician Lev Theremin in 1920. At that time, thinking about music and musical instruments of the future, scientists sought to create unique devices that would surpass the characteristics of traditional musical instruments.

    Working together with artists helps scientists make sense of their own discoveries and find new details. For example, in the 1970s, there was a performance called The Electronic Cafe International, in which two dancers (one in Los Angeles and the other in New York) danced with each other. For the first time, the artists connected two people in a virtual space, each of whom observed himself and his remote partner on the screen, linking their movements. This technology was later used on television, as well as for other performances and conferences.

    A few years ago, in Biscarros (a small town in the south of France), the local authorities invited a famous artistOlga Kiselyova. In the central square of the town grew an elm tree, which according to legend was about a thousand years old-it was a real local symbol. A few years ago, the tree died, and the residents decided to invite an artist to make a sculpture on the site of a dead elm tree.

    But Kiselyova rejected this idea. After spending the entire project budget on research and working with the lab, she found out that the tree had died from a fungus. Because of global warming, insects that ate harmful bugs and worms disappeared – and parasites settled in these elms and ate them, which caused the trees to wither. The artist found a solution – the French elm was grafted with Siberian genes, and the tree on the square was revived. Now her team is working to plant such elms in different places in the south of France, where they are disappearing.

    • Kiseleva Duchamp method proved that the saved tree is a work of art – the revival took place in the form of a performance, and the planting of new trees was accompanied by exhibitions of paintings in those places. According to Olga, the ecological crisis that has engulfed the planet calls into question our way of life and our models of society. And contemporary art should analyze the phenomena of mutation, social, cultural and natural metamorphoses that we are experiencing. A person who enters an artificially bred forest finds himself on the territory of art.

    Marina Abramovic (a Serbian artist who has devoted her entire life to performance art) collaborated with neuroscientists to understand how the human brain works during prolonged eye contact. The idea of the project came up in 2010 during the famous performance “In the presence of the artist” at MoMA, when any visitor to the museum could look into Abramovich's eyes. In 2011, the second part of the performance took place in the Garage Center. A new work on the edge of art and science was called “Measuring the magic of the eye”: the brain activity of two people looking into each other's eyes was recorded using encephalographs. This experiment led to further research by neuroscientists: usually people look into each other's eyes for no longer than 7 seconds, and the brain activity of a person who looks into the other's eyes for more than a few seconds is poorly understood.

    Somewhat infamous are the works of the Brazilian artist Eduardo Katz, who uses… genes instead of colors. Katz used nucleotides to write down lines from the Bible in the bacterial genome (the text was translated into Morse code, and then turned into a cipher of compounds). In addition, Katz created a chimera animal-a fluorescent rabbit named Alba, which was implanted with the jellyfish gene. If you shine a blue light on an animal, it will turn green in response. It would be superfluous to mention that such an experiment caused outrage among many-animal rights activists considered the creation of Alba a mockery of the animal and initiated a wave of protests in the media and on the Internet. This experience became a source of knowledge about the life of transgenic animals and gave an impetus to the development of citizen science (an open type of scientific research that anyone without a special education can join).

    • The debate about whether citizen science makes a tangible contribution to “big science” continues to this day.

    According to Katz himself, the meaning of his work is the opportunity to enjoy the company of an artistic chimera. After the audience and the rabbit, science and art, ethics and discussion enter into a dialogue – and everything exists in relation to everything. According to the artist, in the future, many ” works of art will be alive, this is predetermined by the entire history of creativity.”

    Neural networks are an important part of Art & Science. With their help, you can trace the history of the development of architecture, as well as see the transformation of a gray five-story building into a luxurious cathedral.

    Neural networks draw pictures, turn photos into objects of art, write music and screenplays, and are also able to copy the authors ' corporate identity. In 2019, the neural network from Yandex developers became a co-author of a piece performed by the orchestra under the direction of Yuri Bashmet. The neural network has created original melodies that resemble American minimalism in style. Bashmet himself gave an assessment of this work: “It sounds great, it's a pretty thing.”

    And in 2016, the neural network analyzed more than 300 paintings by Rembrandt and created an algorithm that can repeat the techniques of the great artist. The result of the work leaves a double impression. On the one hand, we know it's a computer. On the other hand, if you put several Rembrandt paintings side by side, very few people will be able to recognize a digital copy.

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