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- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
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- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
The Duchamp Fountain was a sign of the most important cultural turn of the twentieth century-from image to expression, and the most important intellectual turn – from the study of the world of objects to the study of the world of life. At the same time, as a form, “Fountain” parodies the life world, reducing it to a physiological need, and as a gesture-parodies expression, attributing the artist's gesture to the object itself. The torment of the artist, which romantic art used to talk about, turns into physiological torment and into the torment of a ready-made form, the torment of a” given ” that tries to relate at least in some way to the world we are experiencing. This is not so much a gesture as a crucial attempt to survive the minimal conditions of the “life world”. It is important to open the finished item so that we are not alone in our experiences.
Because it gave rise to a new era in art: it was not the work as an object that became important, but the work as a gesture. The value of the work has shifted from the material sphere (figurative art, external beauty) to the mental sphere (conceptual art, idea). We're used to it these days. Let's recall the joke of the “Quartet I” about the toilet under repair, or an anecdote about the cleaner who threw out the installation, mistaking it for garbage. But in those years, such ideas about art were not yet widespread, and some critics” by inertia “found in the” Fountain ” the outlines of the Madonna and Child or Buddha.
Duchamp's fountain itself is not a work of art, but its display at the exhibition has become an important gesture-a reinterpretation of the functioning of a work of art: from now on, it is not the work itself that becomes important, but the context in which it is placed. Any object of the everyday world, placed in the context (discourse) of art, acquires a new meaning, enters into a dialogue with the viewer, other works of art and thereby becomes a full participant in these new relationships.
In addition to what was said earlier, “Fountain” separated the creator and the artist. This is the so-called readymade, when an ordinary factory item becomes an object of art after the artist chooses it. Will Gompertz tells the story of the Fountain in his book “Obscure Art: from Monet to Banksy”.�
The urinal displayed at this exhibition is a kind of manifesto of new art. Duchamp sends the controversial exhibit to an Exhibition of independent artists in 1917 under a pseudonym, and despite the progressive nature of the exhibition, the work is not accepted. No one knows what happened to the first” Fountain ” or where it is now, but several more copies of it were created after that. Marcel Duchamp laughs at the entire artistic community, his work is a protest, a contradiction. The signature ” Matt “is also not accidental, translated from English it means” fool”, and if you replace one letter” Mott ” in it, you will get the name of the store where the urinal was purchased. Therefore, when the public stands for a long time in modern art museums, looks at this exhibit from all sides and sighs significantly, it looks comical. That's exactly what Duchamp was counting on.
This is a perfect example of Dadaism. When an artist depicts a classic portrait or sculpture, he is actually just repeating the actual state of the material world. The appearance of photography at one time was able to “let go” of artists. They no longer needed to formally document the surrounding reality, they were able to depict not things, but feelings, emotions, thoughts, sensations, and speak more freely in allegories and images.