3 Answers

  1. According to Marx, surplus value is appropriated by the owner of the means of production in the form of profit, and this expresses the exploitation of the worker by him.
    This overly simplified concept has not stood the test in practice.

  2. Let's say you buy 20 hours of work for an employee for 100 rubles.

    For 3 hours of work, he makes 1 part, costing 25 rubles.
    Consequently, for 12 hours of its work, it will produce 4 parts, with a total cost of 100 rubles, i.e. it will pay back all the money invested in it.
    But his work will not end there,because you bought 20 hours, and only 12 have passed.
    and now he will work for another 8 hours, for which he will make ,roughly speaking, 2.5 parts,and bring you, conditionally, 62.5 rubles.

    These 62.5 rubles are the surplus value.

  3. Surplus value is an increase in the value of a commodity as a result of the use of hired labor, exceeding the value of the spent hired labor.

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