6 Answers

  1. Philosophy does not deal with questions like “is there X”. It deals with questions like “should X be “or”is X necessary”. And to talk about X at all, you need to answer the question “what is meant by X”. What you didn't do, for example.

    If we do not specify the meaning of the word “soul” and understand it very broadly, then today, perhaps, there is no one who would deny the existence of the soul, except, perhaps, the eliminativists, and then I am not sure for them. The question is not the existence of the soul (the psyche is the “soul”), but whether it is necessary to assume that the soul exists independently of matter.

    Of course, philosophy is full of works that try to justify the necessity of the soul as a separate substance that is not connected with matter. From the modern-panpsychists, for example, Chalmers. But you need to understand that no matter how convincing their arguments may seem to you, others disagree with them and for good reason.

  2. If I may, I can recommend a little more reliable literature. Neuroscientist Chris Frith's popular science book “The Brain and the Soul” reveals many aspects of this so-called soul quite well. There is a lot of research, there are a number of separate areas in science. The book cites scientific publications on the topic, which can also be read separately (they are listed in the list of references).

  3. Strange question.

    Soul=life=the process of executing a genetic code program.

    Does the genetic code exist?

    All processes, desires, demands aimed at fulfilling the natural needs of the body are mental.

    You could say that:

    The soul is the immaterial essence of a person that determines his unconscious actions.(instincts, reflexes)

    Spirit is the immaterial essence of a person that determines his conscious actions.(thinking, consciousness)

  4. I do not know how to respond without advertising myself. The end-Gnostic philosophy discovered the universal of the Twofold Triune Absolute Spirit M and J. Man himself is the soul.

  5. It seems to me that it is the “existence” of the soul that can interest only subjects who are very far from philosophy and science…

    if only because philosophers despise everything that exists as much as they can, and scientists do not need a soul at all…

  6. undoubtedly, but the answer to your question lies in an unexpected area.

    at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the question of the soul and its interaction with it was raised to a completely new level, so that even the soul itself was given a new designation, and the entire organization of the spiritual world was radically revised.

    in Europe, and then in the new world, and in Russia, and a little in Asia, this new trend in the study of the soul was called “spiritualism”, and even a new religion appeared against its background, with its prayers and rituals, mainly concerning the conduct of spiritualistic seances, and the setting of mediums.

    of course, spiritualism did not escape the appearance of a huge number of quack branches, spiritualistic seances (“table-turning” and similar tricks) were held as shows and theatrical performances.

    nevertheless, it was a kind of challenge to the prevailing theological ideology at that time, and all atheists of that time were spiritualists by conviction. since spiritualism attracted all sorts of thinkers and scientists, and was promoted socially by the bored aristocracy and retired military, they tried to introduce science into the conduct of spiritualistic seances, and there are thousands of diaries describing in detail the process of” summoning the spirit”, questionnaires, interviews with summoned entities, etc.all these diaries are no different from the journals of scientific experiments of that time.

    Spiritualists have also developed almost everything that we (or the most exalted people) know today about the “astral”, “astral projections”, and other attributes of the “spirit world”.

    however, the current itself did not last long. for a number of reasons, including such as-fierce resistance of the church (here it is clear), technical development, increasing the importance of commercial secrets (potential technical and commercial espionage), the development of wireless technologies (radio, etc., the spread of traumatic fields), increased military confrontation (again espionage), the development of medicine (reducing the quality of mediums) , etc ….

    all this led to the fact that spiritualistic cells were physically destroyed (even those that were engaged in quackery). the prosecution of spiritualists under various pretexts was widespread. the last trial of spirit in England took place during the Second World War .. the witchcraft charge formally covered up the espionage charge. .. in the United States, in 1926, the issue of banning superstition (including spiritualism) was considered at the legislative level.

    it should be noted that within the framework of spiritualism, many third-party theories have emerged, and even more methods of fraud, but this should not obscure the truth .. and the truth is that scientific research on the soul phenomenon has been deliberately and purposefully stifled. spiritualist publications (often even periodicals) are closed, research in the form of diaries and questionnaires is withdrawn and destroyed.

    in some eyes, spiritualism was as terrible as communism during the Cold War in the West, or as the ghost of a Muscovite in independent Ukraine.

    a certain degree of intolerance towards spiritualism is maintained in European power circles to this day .. and Russia today has a ” Houdini prize “(named after Gary Houdini, a magician who furiously fought “superstition”, or rather with other magicians in the United States).. there are forces that do not allow spiritists to raise their heads, but at the same time” traditional medicine”,” dietary supplements”,” horoscopes”,” magic and divination”,” battle of excesses ” – all this comfortably exists.

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