One Answer

  1. Mostly from ancient statues that have come down to our time. But it is difficult to know for sure how much these statues corresponded to the appearance of a real person.

    Here's Plato:

    And a lot more Plato

    As you can see, different heads have many common features, that is, there is either an established canon or a real prototype.

    But Socrates:

    And many more Socrates

    You can also immediately see that the same person is depicted. Again, we can only talk about the canon.

    And here is Raphael's “School of Athens” from the cover of your question, specifically Socrates:

    It seems obvious that Raphael painted Socrates with one of the aforementioned statues, so obvious is the similarity. But at the same time, Plato on it is also written off from Da Vinci, and in general, many characters have someone else's appearance.

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