4 Answers

  1. This is not exactly how it happens. Let's look at the example of airplanes.

    1) An idea emerges from existing knowledge.

    In the case of an airplane, everything is simple – a person saw birds and thought about flying. This happened in ancient times.

    2) Attempts to create something from what is there.

    These are kites and gliders. China, Spain, Italy, Turkey… In general, almost everywhere there were scientists, there were similar things.

    3) Development of science and understanding.

    18th century. Physics has reached a serious level, and the study of gliders is also far advanced. And the understanding came that for a normal flight, some kind of engine is needed – just a person will descend, he is too heavy. This was stated by the Swedish inventor Swedenborg.

    4) The emergence of new technologies.

    In the 18th and 19th century, they tried to fly anything – a steam engine, a rubber-motor engine, horses. At the same time, it turned out to build a wind tunnel, in which it became possible to test gliders – they improved the geometry of the wing (previously it was large, like a bat, it became long and thin – like modern aircraft).

    5) Success

    By the beginning of the 20th century, all over the world were trying to take off. Pilcher, Mozhaisky, Maxim, Langley-scientists and inventors from completely different countries worked on the issue.

    The Wright brothers, who are considered the first inventors of the airplane, were the most successful of all. 1903.

    Well, over the next few years, Pierce, Watson, and Yato took to the air…

    So the history of the invention of the airplane is not “once and all”, but a very long process of developing one idea. And when its implementation was close to success, the decision was already “in the air”, and if the Wright brothers had not succeeded, someone else would have achieved it a year or two later.

    It is no accident that Popov and Marconi simultaneously invented the radio; Tesla, Ferraris, and Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the asynchronous electric motor in droves, and so on. Even the periodic table gets here – first there were the triads of the German Debreiner, then the octaves of the Englishman Newlands, then the table of the German Meyer, and only then – the achievement of success, the periodic table. that is, he did not just see it in a dream for no reason at all – but succeeded in solving a question that many chemists around the world have already asked.

    So a “scientific breakthrough” is not a sudden leap, but a success in the process of learning (often a very long and slow process). some kind of question.

  2. Without going into too much detail, scientific breakthroughs happen at all times.

    a) it is possible to successfully combine ideas from one field, including from the field of natural sciences, with practical experience from another field-usually these are isolated cases.

    b) it is possible to accumulate a lot of experimental experience, and then integrate it into some inventions-this is accompanied by an explosive increase in the number of inventions at some point in time.

    An example of isolated breakthroughs is machine learning based on GPUs — for a long time no one invested in this, but then people managed to use GPUs and got stuck! Now there is an accumulation of experience for the next breakthrough and periodically something breaks.

    An example of explosive growth is the invention of the Mendeleev system based on accumulated practical experience, the number 0, the number of fractions, etc.

    Recently, experimental and practical experience has been replaced by accumulated theories, which gives rise to a bunch of untested theories that are given out by nauchpop as the truth. Theories that do not have a scientific method and justification are pseudoscientific, so be careful.

  3. Read it if you're interested: Jacques Hadamard “Research on the psychology of the invention process in mathematics”. Read about the life of Leonardo da Vinci – he was a unique man. Both airplanes and quantum physics did not appear suddenly, many people”suffered ” for a long time.

  4. There are two types of such breakthroughs. The first is foresight. When science has not yet come close to the possibility of a specific discovery. But someone's brilliant brain is already putting forward a bold correct hypothesis. This scientist can't back up his assumption with anything. Neither mathematical calculations, nor practical experiments. And there is a real breakthrough, when all the conditions for its implementation are ripe in science. Scientists are primarily critical of reality. They don't accept anything without proof. They doubt the correctness and completeness of any theory, any solution, until they are convinced of its reliability. Some breakthroughs are the fruit of brilliant insights, while others (most of them) are the result of painstaking work, numerous experiments and analysis.

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