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  1. Classical liberalism is a political ideology, a branch of liberalism that asserts civil rights and political freedom. Classical liberalism emphasizes the need for economic freedom. Classical liberalism was developed in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. Although classical liberalism was built on ideas known as far back as the 18th century, it is focused on the new type of society, government, and public relations that emerged in response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization. Among the people whose ideas influenced classical liberalism are John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. Their ideas led to Adam Smith's economics and belief in natural law, utilitarianism, and progress. The 20th century saw a resurgence of interest in classical liberalism, led by the economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman. Some call the modern development of classical liberalism “neoclassical liberalism”, which emphasizes the need to minimize the role of the state and focus it on security and justice issues.

    Libertarianism, less commonly libertarianism (fr. libertarisme is a political philosophy based on the prohibition of “aggressive violence”, that is, the prohibition of using force or threats against another person or their property against the will of that person. The ban on aggressive violence is legal, not ethical. In other words, libertarianism implies that violations of this prohibition should be prosecuted. At the same time, it does not give instructions for specific actions of people. Because of this, libertarianism is not an ethical system. It is compatible with different views of morality: from conservatism, which supports numerous self-restrictions, to libertinism, which rejects any moral restrictions. Some libertarians (anarcho-capitalists) They see the ban on” aggressive violence ” as absolute and does not allow exceptions, even for civil servants. In their opinion, such forms of state intervention as taxation and antitrust regulation are examples of theft and robbery, and therefore should be abolished. Protection of citizens from violence should be provided by private security agencies, and assistance to the poor should be the task of charity. Another part of libertarians (minarchists) accepts the prohibition of “aggressive violence” as an important principle, but considers it necessary or inevitable to have a state that compulsively levies taxes, whose sole task would be to protect the lives, health and private property of citizens. The difference between this and the previous approach to libertarianism is that in the first case, the ban is absolute and applies to each specific action, and in the second-the task of minimizing violence in society is set,for which the state is considered as a lesser evil. Due to the fact that the listed specific forms of libertarianism (anarcho-capitalism and minarchism) contain ideas not only about the proper law (prohibition of aggressive violence), but also about the proper state, these specific forms of libertarianism relate not only to legal, but also to political philosophy.

    Although supporters of personal and economic freedom also began to call themselves libertarians to distinguish themselves from” liberals”, by which in the United States and some other countries since the twentieth century they understand supporters of personal freedom and state redistribution of resources (in particular, Roosevelt's New Deal), including social Democrats and moderate communists. However, many proponents of libertarian ideas do not call themselves libertarians, insisting on the traditional designation of their ideology (“liberalism”) or defining themselves as”classical liberals”. Others consider this adherence to the old terms erroneous, confusing the political picture of the modern world, which hinders the dissemination and understanding of libertarian ideas.

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