2 Answers

  1. By and large, nothing. However, historically, over the course of many decades, physiology has largely developed due to electrophysiological methods (EEG, microelectrode methods, potential research, etc.). Therefore, until now, the concept of “neurophysiology” is associated with the use of this group of techniques.

    Perhaps that is why the term “Neurobiology” has become so well established , which is usually used in connection with biochemical or neuroimaging (MRI, PET, etc.) research methods. However, I repeat, there is no fundamental difference between these concepts. In the vast majority of cases, they are interchangeable.

  2. Sciences are defined by the object of study, and not primarily by method.

    So, if neurophysiology studied the processes in the nervous system, and neuroscience-for example, its structure and evolution (in fact, this is also studied, but not the fact that within the same discipline) – they would be different sciences. The methods of studying the object are secondary: the Earth's crust (for example, for clarity) can be studied by echolocation, drilling, electrical, chemical, or seismic methods – but the object does not change from this. Therefore, there is only one science – geology.

    However, even now, according to some definitions, neuroscience is a more general discipline than neurophysiology:

    Neurobiology is the science that studies the structure, functioning, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of the nervous system. Neurobiology is also related to neurophysiology, the latter studies the peculiarities of physiological processes in the human brain and the resulting changes in mental activity.

    I note that this is only one possible definition.

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