2 Answers

  1. Of course, I can't be sure that I have any adequate logic, but I try to strive for it. Therefore, I will express my opinion, and let others supplement it.

    In my opinion, the main condition is to constantly ask questions and try to find answers to them. Moreover, questions should be asked not so much to someone as to yourself. Let me explain. For example, you get some information about an event that you are interested in. Start asking yourself questions right away: “Why did this happen?”, ” Could it have happened otherwise?”, ” What data do I need to know to better understand the event?”, ” What data do people who comment on this event take into account?”, ” What data can they not take into account?”, etc. This doesn't mean that you don't need to listen to experts. Need. You just can't be satisfied with their answer, as it sharpens your brain for a mindless search for information and ready-made answers. You can't develop logical thinking that way. And experts can be wrong.

    You need to learn to think “about people”. That is, ask questions that can” break ” your logic and the logic of your opponent. Even if this opponent is distant and does not respond to you in reality. Such training will allow you to see the shortcomings of your logic or some hidden points that you previously missed. This is immediately followed by a search for new information that further refines your hypotheses.

    Of course, you need to read more. Read science-pop and non-fiction literature. In these books, you can always come across something that you will think: “I didn't know!”. A new information search will start. New doubts will begin: has the theory described here been thought out? Is everything taken into account? Is there a contrary opinion? And what is it?

    Unfortunately, the modern world is focused on finding ready-made answers, and not on independently generating an answer from existing knowledge, with subsequent polishing with the help of more knowledgeable people. This is facilitated by the Internet (in particular, search engines and this site). But to think logically, you need to constantly positively question both the thoughts of experts and your own ideas. This does not mean that you should not trust anyone. This means that you need to want to check. You need to want to come to some conclusions with your brain, even if someone has already made these conclusions before you. After all, if you have learned only the conclusion, but do not know and do not understand the essence of the facts on the basis of which it was made, then you have learned only a useless shell. Peel it. You will be stuck with this conclusion as a useless fact. You can't help but develop it, break it down into its components, and therefore you can't use it. And how many times, after all, have the best minds of their generations been wrong?�

    If you generalize, then the inquisitiveness of the mind and thirst for knowledge will allow you to develop analytical thinking. And knowledge of the basic laws of logic (for this it is worth reading a couple of books on the topic), as well as basic logical errors, will allow you not to get confused in the causes and effects.

  2. Do you want to learn how to reason logically and understand formal logic? Take a school geometry course (Euclidean geometry). No scientific discipline teaches the mastery of logical reasoning to the extent that Euclidean geometry, with its many theorems, its rigorous and formal proofs, and its problems, teaches it. So pick up Pogorelov, Planimetry. Grades 7-9 and on your way. You can take Kalinin, Tereshin, Geometry. grades 10-11.
    Logic itself, or rather elements of mathematical logic, is studied in the modern school curriculum in the computer science course. See, for example, Ugrinovich, Informatics and ICT. grades 10-11.

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