4 Answers

  1. It is unlikely that you will find this edition on paper, but perhaps somewhere in the book ruins there is still a two-volume “History of Ancient Philosophy” by Prince S. N. Trubetskoy, 1908. I advise you to start studying philosophy with it.

    Electronic copies are available in the online library of the Lan Publishing house (registration, free of charge, pdf), on the Library Genesis website libgen.io (free, djvu).

  2. I recommend the books by D. Antiseri and J. R. R. Tolkien. Reale — four volumes of the history of Western philosophy, starting with antiquity, ending with Habermas. Authors write in an interesting and accessible way, adding excerpts from original works. It doesn't make sense to read all the crap like “A brief introduction to Philosophy” if you want to get decent knowledge. You can read these volumes diagonally, scooping out only the topics you need. Books are available in pdf format on the Internet, somewhere djvu. If anything, please contact me, I will try to find it in my electronic archives.

  3. If you just thought that a little philosophy in your life wouldn't hurt, first you need to understand what direction of philosophical thought you are interested in. In any case, before referring to the original works, I would advise you to get an idea, roughly speaking, about everything. Just a year ago, I was faced with the same question, and my brother gave me B. Russell's History of Western Philosophy. In a brick of 1000 pages, the material presented is quite accessible, and this, in fact, should not frighten you, since studying philosophy, you willy-nilly read a lot of sometimes heavily written literature. If you want to get acquainted with the most significant ideas quite briefly, oddly enough, “Philosophical theories in 30 seconds” will do, but I must note that despite the pro-publicized simplicity of presentation, it can be quite difficult to understand even a small paragraph. For an overview, academic textbooks, in my opinion, should not be taken up, in any case, I did not do so.

  4. Probably there were already a lot of such questions..

    There is one book, I don't know how popular it is in scientific circles, but it will be just right for a start. It doesn't claim to be the most concise presentation, but there is something in it. Approaching the history of philosophy through jokes is not a trivial idea, and therefore valuable.

    From the preface: “Philosophy and humor, in their original combination, deprive serious questions of the heaviness that academic institutions usually impose on them. The reader's knowledge of the truth is carried out as a fun game. When we read a book, we become like children, deprived of the problems of the adult world, learning the basics of the universe through fun and play, and not yet deprived of direct vision of the true nature of things.”

    And it is called “Once Plato went to a bar… Understanding philosophy through jokes.”

    Take a look at this philosofaq.ru

    And you can still have time to sign up for courses universarium.org

    It won't be bad to start with.

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