3 Answers

  1. This means that you should act on the basis of such principles that you can offer as universal, which you want to see as such. If you don't want to live in a society where a certain principle is shared by everyone, then you shouldn't be guided by it either.

  2. The development of the human mind is an expansion of the circles of selfishness: the interests of the infant are limited to their own body, then they begin to perceive their parents as their property, then toys. Growing up, he associates himself with hobbies, with friends, with fans of some music, with classmates, with fans of his favorite team: the “circle of I” seems to include more and more people and phenomena: now the success of his favorite team is perceived as personal experiences. A fully developed person becomes a citizen – that is, he perceives the good of society and the Country on a par with his own good. Then a person can begin to sympathize with humanity as a whole and even with all living things on the Planet, and then with all intelligent beings of the Cosmos, the universe as a whole.

    Well, man is a man only to the extent that he is intelligent – but otherwise he is the same animal. And the nature of reason is universal, it does not just direct the individual, but is a lawgiver in literally everything. Consequently, a person is as much a person as he covers a wide range of interests with his subjective consciousness: he thinks not only for himself, but also for humanity, and at least for his neighbors. Not in the sense that it “thinks” that it decides how someone should live – but on the contrary: in the sense that it recognizes and unconditionally respects the reasonable freedom of everyone. And when he does something, he thinks about how much his actions contribute to progress in general, how they affect other people and nature.

    “Maxim” – this is how the principle used to be called, that is, the rule to which someone's actions are reduced, these are the goals and values that the individual strives for, the program according to which he lives. And so Kant suggests this thought experiment: imagine that what you are striving for has become a universal binding law, that is, what happens if everyone starts doing what you are doing? Then you should use your mind to assess whether the picture is a good one, and therefore whether your principle of action leads to the common good. And from this, accordingly, it turns out that you need to reconsider your motives and actions and act only in such a way that everyone brings closer not only their personal, but also general happiness.

    Yes, one's own happiness is also not excluded from this behavior, being happy is also a person's moral duty to himself. This happiness should only not contradict the happiness of others (because for the Mind, happiness on someone's misfortune is already overshadowed happiness, and therefore not so much happiness). And what would be happiness for everyone is also not so simple, it also needs to be solved intelligently. To do this, you must first understand yourself and understand others. Another formulation of the Imperative is: treat the other always as an end in itself, and never only as a means (for your own happiness). That is, remember not only the individual, but also the universal human goal.

    So the categorical Imperative is the guidance that the mind gives itself out of its own rational nature.

  3. When making a choice and making a decision, imagine how your actions will affect other people and the environment, also imagine that all people would be guided by the same principles as you in a similar situation, i.e. they would do the same to you and to each other – would you like to live in a society where people do this? Would you like to be treated like this and treated like this for yourself and your loved ones? Are such actions consistent with the principles of morality, harmony, responsibility, and love?

    This approach can be called holistic (holistic, proceeding from the unity of the world and humanity) – to reflect and act from the position of the Whole, beauty, harmony, love, sincerity, meaningfulness, good.

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