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Putting aside theological disputes, it should first be emphasized that, from the point of view of modern historical science, to say that “the early Christians believed in this” or “the early Christians believed in that” is in most cases not entirely correct.�
In the first centuries AD, Christianity as a single phenomenon did not exist in principle – there were many disparate trends that are often in rather complex relationships with each other. Nor was there a single corpus of canonical texts. Therefore, for example, references to the canonical Gospels as a standard of “early Christian” thought are erroneous – their status up to a certain point did not differ from that of “apocryphal”ones.
However, it is quite clear that many Christian texts of the first centuries do not explicitly imply the idea of the Trinity. Those of them that were later included in the canon were retrospectively interpreted in the appropriate way after the doctrine of the Trinity became the norm of Christian dogma.
This question contains an understatement. It implies that there were some early Christians who were united in their beliefs. And all these beliefs must be correct and remain unchanged.
But this view is wrong. There were many Christian communities. These communities had different views on different theological issues. Accordingly, in some places they professed incorrect teachings, in others-partially incorrect, because they did not fully understand the essence of Christianity. This can be illustrated by the example of the so-called Apostolic Council (Acts 15), when the Apostle Paul explained the uselessness of various Jewish practices for Gentile Christian converts.
As for the Trinity, it is unlikely that the first Christians understood it as it is understood today. This doctrine was crystallized as a result of surviving in a world of heresies. Some aspects of modern theology were unknown in the first and second centuries. Just as the phrase “I want mercy, not sacrifice” would have been unintelligible to the Jews of Moses ' time.
The revelation of the Trinity was a response to explicit heretical statements. For example, the idea that Christ is only a created angel. That is, first there was a certain view, and then Christians, as a result of theological disputes, developed Orthodox teaching. Sometimes even those early Christians who now have the status of saints had some views that are now considered incorrect. This can be explained by the fact that their understanding was determined by the context of the theological teachings among which they lived. Some of them expressed what can now be called subordinationism. We can cite an example from the third and fourth centuries, when Orthodox theologians were relatively calm about those who did not accept the divinity of the Holy Spirit, since the main dispute at that time was about the Second Hypostasis.
To sum up: in the first centuries of Christianity, there were completely different teachings, both correct and heretical. Of course, there was subordinationism, there were anti-trinitarians (who denied the Divinity of the Second Hypostasis), and there were unitarians (who taught that the Father and Son are one person).
This question cannot be answered unambiguously, not only for the reason described by Dmitry Gusarov. Most importantly, which Christians are considered early? Before the recognition of Christianity as the state religion by Emperor Constantine in 313? Or before the Council of Nicaea in 325? Or the Christians of the first communities immediately after the events of the Gospel? The earliest Christian communities consisted of Jews, i.e. persons officially belonging to Judaism. For them, their teacher Yeshua was the coming Mashiach (in Greek, Christ, literally-the anointed one, i.e., the anointed One). “crowned king”) – the expected Jewish King-deliverer from slavery and Judge. However, in view of the tragic events surrounding the crucifixion, Yeshua's ministry as Mashiach was interrupted and his second coming was expected for the judgment of all Jews and the establishment of the final Kingdom of Israel promised by the prophets of the Old Testament. An orthodox Jew is ALWAYS a monotheist. He will never allow the idea that God may not be alone, he may have some additional persons or entities. For a Jew, this is the most common blasphemy. According to the prophecies, the Mashiach, although endowed with some superpowers and strength, was chosen by God for this mission, but was an ordinary person born of a man and a woman. The evangelical expression “Son of God” meant at that time in the Jewish community “righteous” or “holy man”. Yeshua himself also emphasized ambiguously that he was only a human being. For example, in response to the address “Good Teacher”, he abruptly breaks off and says: “No one is good but God alone!” (Mark 10:18). From this perspective, Peter's response to Yeshua's question becomes clear: who do you (the disciples) say I am? Peter replies, ” You are the Christ, the Son of the Living God.” It means ” You are the promised Mashiach, the righteous one.” The orthodox Jew Shimon, nicknamed Kippah (stone), could not answer the teacher in any other way. Decades later, especially after the fiery sermons of Sha'ul Paulus, known as the Apostle Paul, Christianity began to spread to the rest of the ancient world, and former pagan Greeks became Christians. And they tried to turn a clear, simple and important teaching that is strictly within the framework of Jewish monotheism into a compote of the ideas of Plato, Pythagoras, Gnostics, etc. funny guys-ancient philosophers. This is where the ideas of the Logos as the incarnate essence of God, the ideas of the multitude of persons of the Deity – the Trinity, the immaculate conception, etc. – came from. In fact, a new religion was created within the Roman Empire, which absorbed the main ideas of a number of ancient philosophers, already listed by me. True, somewhat rethought. Therefore, the Jewish rabbi Yeshua Ha-Nozri died on the cross, and a new invented god, Jesus Christ, who never existed, was resurrected. And, of course, the Council of Nicaea in 325 already officially consolidated what the Greek sages had done before it during 200 years of their creative search. Therefore, it is safe to say that the early Christians DID NOT BELIEVE in the Trinity, the immaculate Conception, or the divine nature of their Master. And the first Christians considered him to be the promised Deliverer of Israel – the Mashiach, and in the literal sense of this concept.
Early Christians are in the 12th century. And the first of them is the grandfather of Christ Vladimir the Great aka Alexey Oko Minos-king of Rome (Byzantium) Гл and the father of Christ Gleb Vladimirovich-aka John Oko Minos-King of Rome and Evangelist John.
Christos (os) was also the King of Rome. In 1185, there was a Crucifixion and Resurrection. God will write a word about this, a Word about Igor's regiment. And there was no Trinity under Christ. The two fingers of Christ are two streams that pass through a person. The spirit of God from the bottom up and the flow from the Virgin Mother of the Earth from the top down. Amen.
We are the likenesses of God, and therefore we can be used to judge God. We are one person, although we have reason (logos), willpower( spirit. force), good, conscience, harmony, etc., etc., which are called “modes” of existence, or hypostases in the sense of roles. We don't have three or more people in terms of the number of roles, which would make us crazy. In the disputes of the church fathers about hypostases, two understandings of this term collided: hypostasis as a person, or substance, and hypostasis as a role, or modus (hence the modalists). The argument of the “red boot” (so ordered by Constantine the Great, who was tired of eternal disputes), the problem was “solved” by the personification of modes. So the Trinity appeared. At the same time, the fathers did not notice that the personification of modes leads to the aporia of multiplying entities (persons) to infinity, and this makes cognition impossible. What they fought for, that and…
The Trinity is just an allegorical definition of the three-dimensional space in which we all live and nothing more! The way the modern church interprets this is necessary for her to justify the divine origin of Christ.
Good time of day. It is true that in the time of Jesus PBUH, Christians were on tawhid (monotheism) what confirms the texts of the Holy Quran:”Indeed, those who believe, and those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and those who do righteous deeds, will have their reward with their Lord. They will not be in fear, nor will they grieve.” ( Surah 2, verse 62).
All the messengers of the Lord were on one point, on monotheism:”Indeed, We have revealed to you (Muhammad) what We revealed to Nuh (Noah) and the prophets after him. And We revealed the revelation to Ibrahim (Abraham), Ishmael (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya'qub (Jacob) and his descendants (the twelve tribes), Isa (Jesus), Ayyub (Job), Yunus (Jonah), Harun (Aaron), Suleiman (Solomon). And to David We gave the Zabur (Psalter). (Surah 4, verse 163).****
Surah 2, verse 171:
O People of the Book 171. (Jews and Christians)! Do not overstep the boundaries of your religion (by not accepting Isa (Jesus), peace be upon him, or, on the contrary, by deifying him)�and speak only the truth about Allah. The anointed Jesus, the son of Maryam, is the Messenger of Allah (not His son), His word sent to Maryam, and the spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His Messengers, and do not say, ” There are three of them.” Leave it (the doctrine of the Trinity) after all, it's better for you. Indeed, Allah is the Only God. He is blessed to have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth(all creatures, including Isa, are servants of Allah). And Allah is sufficient as a protector.
O People of the Book “(Jews and Christians)! Do not overstep the bounds of your religion”: O Christians, do not overstep the bounds of reason in your beliefs and statements about Jesus (PBUH), claiming that he is God.
“And speak only the truth about Allah”: do not attribute to the Most High Allah those qualities that are impossible for him, such as merging with the creatures or having a son.
The anointed 'Isa, son of Maryam – is the Messenger of Allaah”“: 'Isa (peace be upon him) is only the Prophet of Allaah, but not His son, contrary to what you say.
His word sent to Maryam: “Allah created him without a father in Maryam's womb.
from Him”And the spirit“: it is about the soul that the angel Jibril (Gabriel) put into the womb of Maryam at the command of Allah Almighty. And the pronoun refers to Allah because of honor and respect, just as a mosque is called “the house of Allah”.
«So believe in Allah” – without associating partners with Him – “and His Messengers” – in all of them, without dividing them.
And do not say: “three of Them!””“: believe in the oneness of Allah and do not say that God is a Trinity, i.e. that God is God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, because it indicates solenosti Allah, contrary to Monotheism, a belief in the existence of the incarnations of Allah is a pagan.
Leave it alone, for it is better for you”“: renounce the pagan doctrine of the “trinity”, and you will receive a reward from the Most High Allah.
Indeed, Allah is the Only God” “ – He has no partners and does not consist of parts, although pagans and Christians who believe that God is one of the three say otherwise.
He is exalted from having a son, “ because these are the qualities of creatures, and the Creator of the heavens and the earth cannot be characterized by having a wife, a son, a beginning, or a creation.
To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth.”(all creatures, including Isa, are servants of Allah). And Allah is sufficient as a protector!” – after all, only the Most High Allah is the absolute Creator of the heavens and the earth, and only He rules everything without needing a son or anything else, and only on Him can His slaves rely and only from Him can they ask for help.
Allah, the Most High, did not mention any woman in the Qur'an by name, except Maryam, the daughter of Imran. Maryam's name is mentioned in the Qur'an more than thirty times.
Since the belief that ' Isa (PBUH) was born without a father is one of the conditions of iman, his name is constantly mentioned in the Qur'an along with his mother's name to confirm that he was born without a father.
The expression “and the spirit from Him” does not in any way imply that ' Isa (peace be upon him) was a part of Allah. Although the birth of Isa (pbuh) is different from the birth of other people, he was created. At the command of Allah Almighty, Jibril (peace be upon him) blew through the slit in Maryam's collar. However, ' Isa (pbuh) is not the only one who was created in this way. For example, Adam (PBUH) was created without either a father or a mother. Therefore, the words: “And I will breathe into him of My spirit” are also said about Adam (peace be upon him).
Being a ” spirit from Allah “does not in any way mean”being a part of Allah.” This means that the creation was created in a supernatural way by the order of Allah.
The words “don't say there are three deities” refute the Christian belief in the trinity. In fact, their beliefs on this issue are very contradictory and incomprehensible. What is clear is that although they consider Allah to be the only one in terms of essence, they still say that this essence consists of three hypostases.
This question cannot be answered unambiguously. Disputes over the relationship within the Trinity began in the early Church and, in one form or another, such famous Christian philosophers as Justin Martyr, Origen and Tertullian defended subordinationism. Then Arianism emerged, and the crisis reached its climax at the Council of Nicaea in 325. As a result, Arianism was condemned, and the doctrine of the Trinity was explicitly enshrined in the Nicene creed. However, the ideas of subordinationism continued to float in the air and by the second half of the IV century were shared by almost the majority of Christian bishops. This state of affairs has persisted for several centuries.
Thus, it is quite certain that although the early Christians did not believe in the Trinity as professed in modern churches, the ideas of subordinationism were not as widespread as is sometimes imagined.