- Why did everyone start to hate the Russians if the U.S. did the same thing in Afghanistan, Iraq?
- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
- Why did Blaise Pascal become a religious man at the end of his life?
- How do I know if a guy likes you?
- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
Socialism is basically workable either at the expense of non-economic coercion (the GULAG, now the DPRK), or at the expense of natural rent (the USSR of the 1970 period..1991).
The camp system was destroyed in 1956, and oil fell in 1986.
It's hard to pinpoint the exact moment of the crash, but it's been in agony since 1986.
PS The fact that the collapse of socialism occurred in very different social countries suggests that it is not viable in principle.
P.P.S. For 2021, there are three socialist countries left: North Korea (Stalinist type of economy, GULAG) Cuba and Venezuela (vegetating in a mild climate).
China abandoned socialism with the advent of Deng Xiaoping (there from socialism – only the flag and anthem), in Sweden-capitalism with a high level of social support…
The USSR ceased to exist due to the fact that the goals were changed. Every person, society, nation, and country has a goal. This goal can be achieved in many different ways, and history shows us all the different ways to achieve these goals. What were the goals? In different periods of history, the goals of the state are different.
The economy is a way to achieve goals. It's just a tool. The goal is important. The aim of the USSR was to preserve the territory and the established economic order. But by starting to trade in oil and gas, the country has entered the orbit of the capitalist system, which has other goals, directly opposite to those that the Soviet Union set for itself.
Huge efforts and resources were thrown into this new sphere, but the result was sad. It's easier to sell something and then use the money to buy what you need. But the capitalist system sets other tasks and solves them using mainly financial levers. Then, as in the USSR, everything was different. Social obligations required serious financial costs, and the products produced no longer met the level of requests of the country's citizens. No one wanted to live in poverty. Even the party leadership adopted a number of program guidelines to improve the material well-being of workers.
But we were far behind the leading countries that teased our people with their storefronts.
Good and high-quality goods were not enough for everyone, production facilities were obsolete, and the entire management system began to pursue its own personal goals, very far from the idea of universal prosperity.
Each of the leaders of the USSR, starting with N. S. Khrushchev and ending with M. S. Gorbachev, gradually changed the initial global goals set by I. V. Stalin during the period of industrialization, during the Second World War and in the post-war period. Stalin solved these problems quickly, but the man of the post-war period was radically different from the man of the pre-war period. The enthusiasm of the period of great achievements has faded.
But not only did the people change, but there was another change in the goals of the new leadership. This was also reflected in the change in the general line of the party. First, there were changes in the role of the center, then the introduction of household taxes based on p/p, then the abolition of the leading and directing role of the CPSU, then the change in the Regulations on the State Bank of the USSR, carried out by the decree of Gorbachev in 1990, which led to the destruction of the financial system, which in turn drained the country
And the parade of sovereignties almost destroyed the Russian part, the RSFSR, the largest of all 15 republics.
By what miracle all this communal diversity, which we habitually call Russia, is preserved, no one knows. And how long it will last and how it will end in the end, God only knows.
The reason for the collapse of the Soviet economy is Gorbachev. Instead of well-thought-out reforms, Gorbachev began to destroy everything and acted like an elephant in a china shop. But, of course, even before Gorbachev, the Soviet economy was not in order. First of all, it could not ensure the quality of life of the population.
There were no economic reasons for the collapse of the USSR. The reason for the collapse of the USSR-Gorbachev. Instead of well-thought-out reforms, Gorbachev began incomprehensible bursts that led to the collapse of the USSR. But the boards in the coffin of the USSR began to plan and Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
The economic reasons for the collapse of the USSR economy do not exist in nature .
Just as there are NO “Economic reasons “for the” COLLAPSE OF THE USSR ” itself.
In the USSR, the Soviet model of economy and state administration weakened (Let's leave out its effectiveness-for all its many shortcomings, it worked and was almost a maxim that not a rich USSR could afford in principle )
No other model has emerged ( attempts by economists like Yavlinsky to propose a “transition model” have failed).
Of course, under these conditions, nothing but the collapse of the economy could happen . But there were NO purely economic reasons for this.
The economic reasons for the collapse of the USSR are details. If at the beginning of solving a complex problem you make a mistake, then all the subsequent solution will already go to the inevitable wrong answer. And it doesn't matter how you continue to solve the problem. To get everything right, you need to go back to the condition and start the solution all over again.
The first and most important mistake of the Communists was to introduce atheism to the masses. It is not possible to change a person for the better without faith in God. Why should I work not for myself, but for everyone in our country? Based on the principle of love. Christianity provides a clear rationale for what love is and how to build a life based on the principle of love. They removed Christian love from the human soul – a holy place is never empty, and this place was taken by egoism. When life was bad, cold, and hungry, people still learned to love their neighbors themselves, because suffering teaches a person to be compassionate and brings people together. As soon as the full time came, selfishness bloomed in full bloom. And there are few people who did not steal something from the state under the USSR. A popular saying among construction workers: “Pull every nail from the construction site, You are the owner here, not a guest.” And since people arrange the form of their existence in the likeness of their soul, then communism has become useless to anyone, because it turned out to be alien to egoism. Human egoism corresponds to capitalism, where everyone is for himself. And communism, where one for all and all for one is a form of expression of human love for each other, so it turned out to be a selfish society and is not needed. This is the main reason: it is impossible to build a paradise on earth without God, that is, without love!
Then you can not say anything else – it could not have turned out any good, because atheism is a path of spiritual degradation.
Renunciation of democracy, that is, of the dictatorship of the proletariat. This was reflected in the adoption of the capitalist form of government in 1936. This is the beginning of the end. The road to power was opened to crooks of all stripes. A socialist state with a capitalist form of government! This is already a paradox. Like a bull with a pig's head.
1960 transition from the socialist path of economic development to the capitalist path of development. This was the end! The state with a planned socialist economy followed the capitalist path of its development. Nothing more absurd could have been imagined, and no one ever did. Those homeless people, who in 1936 opened the road to power, began to rule the country. All the same thing that children can be allowed to manage a supermarket: they will make a lot of “cases”, then they will dig their pockets full of sweets and run away. It was only a matter of time before the ship sank. Drowned for 30 years. During the 15 years of post-war socialism, the country was so raised from ruins that even after socialism, it existed by inertia for 30 years, plundered everywhere. And it is not known how much longer it would have held out, if not for the enterprising young people who came to power, who saw their advantage in the imminent collapse of the country.
For this reason, economic reasons, without understanding the essence of events, do not say anything. And many “experts” also call the economy after 1960 socialist and find flaws in it, while it has already ceased to be such. A bull with the head of a pig and the legs of an ostrich will not live long in a priori, and there is no point in discussing its gait.
She… She drowned. In full accordance with Marx, the backward red-brown society-the slave-owning despotism-could not stand the competition with advanced capitalism, democracy.
Low oil prices have only accelerated the process. And the energy superpower itself, becoming a raw material appendage with missiles , is a forced decision of a failing economy.
I am sure that the topics against the USSR are written by people who did not personally live there, but got propaganda from external unfriendly sources, or just ill-wishers. I think it is wrong to destroy the good memory of your past, because the Empire, the USSR and the Russian Federation are not three different countries, but one and also ours. Only the Russians themselves can hate their own Homeland so much. I personally lived in the USSR and strongly disagree with his opponents. Here are a few specifics:
“The Soviet command economy was characterized by a one-sided dependence on the income of raw materials exports” – and in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, isn't it so?
“it was not able to overcome the chronic agrarian crisis” – not a single piece of land, as everywhere now, was empty, and agriculture was the most scientific and advanced in Europe (Krasnodar Territory and Rostov region).
“if you had the funds to buy a machine, you might not have received it” – Krasnodar plant im. Sedina recently bought out of Germany his own outdated “CNC” machine for “military purposes” written off there, or remember the same program of the Buran space shuttle, for a large “blat” and for huge sums of money.
“an inevitable consequence of the socialist principles of its organization. In the socialist system, economic calculation is impossible” – however, the best scientists and economists worked in the USSR, who after the destruction of the Country taught the whole World (remember the theory of motivation “Maslow” – this is our Maslov).
“The main reason is a planned economy” – this is how the entire European Union is now based exclusively on a planned economy.
“it is impossible to plan in the volume of a country” – look at the twin brother of the USSR-China-this is what the USSR would be like today, if you make a projection in time.
Speaking of China. Here's what the Chinese media report: (https://omvesti.ru/2019/11/28/kitajskoe-smi-ocenilo-naskolko-silnym-byl-by-sovremennyj-sssr/)
“The Soviet Union would be a world power that is not inferior to the United States, if the country still existed. This is the conclusion reached by the Chinese publication Fenghuang wang.
According to the author, even in the absence of progress in the development of science and technology, the USSR would remain the second strongest country in the world.
Analyzing the state of the USSR at the time of the collapse, the publication draws attention to the fact that the country was the second largest economy in the world. Military output accounted for a significant share of industrial production, and thanks to its military power, the Soviet Union could exert pressure on the United States if necessary.
The author believes that modern Russia is inferior in many respects to the Soviet Union. Despite this, the country is still the world's second-largest military power and conducts its policies in different parts of the world.
It is noted that if the Soviet Union still existed, it is very likely that the United States “would have been more restrained in provocations.”
And in conclusion, I will refer to Putin – the most knowledgeable person in the Russian Federation, who also lived there himself and described the collapse of the USSR as “the largest geopolitical catastrophe of the last century.”
The reasons were immediate and fundamental.
The immediate reasons were that the collapse in world oil prices in the mid-1980s sharply reduced the Soviet leadership's ability to continue financing the annual purchases of tens of millions of tons of grain, meat, and other food and consumer goods, maintain the foreign trade balance, service the growing external debt, finance gigantic military expenditures, and purchase the machinery and equipment needed for industry from foreign exchange earnings from oil and gas exports.
The Soviet command economy was characterized by a one-sided dependence on raw material export revenues, a high level of unproductive spending, financial and commodity imbalance, did not ensure the production of goods that were competitive on foreign markets, was unable to overcome the chronic agricultural crisis, and was based on a morally and physically outdated production base that was not updated due to the lack of modern technologies and
Why did this happen?
Fundamentally, this character of the economy is an inevitable consequence of the socialist principles of its organization. In the socialist system, economic calculation is impossible, when in the absence of free prices, it is impossible to determine the real volume of costs and profits. The result is erroneous decisions in the economy, waste of capital and inefficient operation of enterprises, the main goal of which is to fulfill a plan that is out of touch with reality, and not to meet the real needs of people. Public spending, being the only source of capital investment, is determined not by economic expediency, but by political motives.
Opposing itself to the rest of the world for ideological reasons further increases the disparity in the economy due to its closeness, which excludes it from the international division of labor and deprives it of access to the results of scientific and technological progress, increases domestic spending and spending on military purposes.