One Answer

  1. During the NEP era, there was a huge layer of small private owners-peasants. Budyonny fought for the land, that is, for his allotment ,and not for communism. NEP began as a reaction to the Kronstadt Uprising (Soviets without Communists) and the peasant uprisings (cat. Tukhachevsky suppressed with the use of gases). In essence, NEP is the implementation of the Menshevik program. Dan's memoirs describe an episode when the Mensheviks in prison were asked by their former comrades in prison, the Bolsheviks, to write a program, and this was NEP. And under Soviet rule, there were no owners except for the bureaucracy (according to Marx, the property of the bureaucracy is the state). So the bureaucracy released the slaves for free bread during perestroika, since there was nothing to feed them with falling oil prices. Liberalism has nothing to do with it.

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