What does modern science think about Nietzsche's concept of eternal return? By Philosophy Posted on 2022-02-05 Category : Other Is an infinite time axis possible without a "big bang"?
I've already answered a similar question: What are the positions of the theory of eternal return from the point of view of modern science?
In short, the concept of eternal return as such is absent in modern natural science, but if desired, eternal return can be seen in the ontology of Quantmech. On the other hand…
We can also talk about such a concept of eternal return, which unfolds in time (as the author of the question suggests). Then the development of the Universe from the Big Bang to the conditional Big End is just living one “Groundhog day” on the scale of the universe. In principle, as far as I know, the existing models of the evolution of the universe fully allow this option (seeThe problem of the initial singularity and the further evolution of the Universe in the Big Bang theory).
I would add that finding the world in time itself is philosophically problematic. According to Parmenides, being is known to be immobile, and if so, then there can be no movement. According to Heraclitus, variability, on the contrary, is the basis of things. Plato came and reconciled them, separating the motionless world of ideas from the moving world of things. Modern physics inherits this division, which is why the unchanging laws describe our changing world.
Nietzsche, unlike Plato, offers a completely different ontology: enough of this otherworldliness of truth, he says, all truth is centered in the here and now. There are no eternal laws that exist independently of being — being itself exists as if it follows eternal laws. In fact, it should not-rather, it is an aberration of our perception, which tends to notice only deeply-rooted-being, while being that is not rooted disappears fleetingly, not falling into our field of vision (see fig.The eternal Return of Nietzsche).
Returning to physics: there is a universe that reproduces itself stably, which is both stationary and dynamic. It is in such conditions that being, matter, life, and consciousness can be organized — as a consequence, only such a universe exists for human consciousness (see fig.The anthropic principle).
Modern science thinks nothing of Nietzsche's concept, because “eternal return” is an existential concept rather than a metaphysical one. After all, it's not about the fact that everything will really happen again, but about the fact that you need to live every day as if it were repeated again and again, like in Groundhog Day.
Our art is tao or zen. It was bequeathed by great sages. Suppressing emotions creates a righteous heart. The energy of the cosmos fills the soul, And only then do thoughts come. Teaching is natural and explicable by the nature of things. One day you will know the ultimate truth And realize that the purpose of man is Enlightenment. Infinity becomes clear and distinct. And there are no other ways to understand it. Movement in space is also transitory and eternal, Like the sunrise and sunset in the sky, There is no point in looking for a magic elixir, Or listening to the arguments of the sages about Emptiness. Throw away thoughts, feelings, and then the star of truth will shine again. If we don't understand that everything in our world is energy and we are also energy, we won't be able to explain anything. Before explaining anything, you must first wake up!!! With respect.
Kant, in his own way, believed in the possibility of infinite knowledge, but he did not connect absolute knowledge with the possibilities that are available to man. He, like most scientists and philosophers now, did not admit that absolute knowledge can be absolutely simple and accessible to man. This simplicity proved to be the maxim that Nietzsche's intuition probably saw, insisting on his “eternal return”, which, as many believe, ultimately deprived him of reason. But in fact, Nietzsche's madness is a madness that is hidden in German classical philosophy itself, which lies dormant in it and can cause an insoluble crisis of thinking in any person in the future. Nietzsche intuitively saw this danger and that is why he began to reject morality, science, religion, and everything that made up the culture of thinking that was characteristic of the minds of people of his time. This took place in such” unphilosophical ” forms that led him from powerlessness to change anything to insanity and the need to be the antithesis of Kant. They were ideological opponents, and their opposition reflected the coming crisis of German classical philosophy. Nietzsche was neither a mathematician nor a philosopher in the usual sense, and therefore preferred aphorisms and short judgments. The very style of philosophizing between Nietzsche and Kant was very different. Kant laid the foundations of German classical philosophy and was obliged to be not only strict and scientific in his judgments, but also, in a certain sense, a missionary. Kant was a brilliant creator of a new philosophy and a missionary at the same time. As a brilliant philosopher, he felt and understood that anything new, if it wants to count on further development, necessarily carries with it its own negation. But as a missionary, Kant was silent about this, and therefore Nietzsche was forced to say the same in a “crazy” way, remaining in history an implacable critic and subverter of philosophy.
Our universe, our Time axis is occupied by such a science – physics. On our standard Time axis, the Big Bang was. According to our science. But if you take an imaginary time, for example (multiply a second by an imaginary unit, the square root of minus one), then there could be no singularity there. Paradoxically enough.
Physics is no longer very interested in further assumptions. They are beyond the scope of our physics, the physics of our universe.
Then there are mathematics, theosophy, and theology.
And already from the point of view of mathematics, a “straight” infinite time axis is quite possible. Why not? And the time axis is “looped”, but also infinite-it is quite possible. Mathematically. It's just that it has nothing to do with our universe.