- Why did everyone start to hate the Russians if the U.S. did the same thing in Afghanistan, Iraq?
- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
- Why did Blaise Pascal become a religious man at the end of his life?
- How do I know if a guy likes you?
- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
The very idea of the intelligence quotient, which originates in the segregational beliefs that the scientific community attached to, until recently, officially (and continues to practice it to this day, but implicitly / covertly), finds a response in the works and methods of A. Binet (one of the first works focused on the creation of a methodology for objective measurement of intelligence). He created various tests for school-age children. They included tests of reading, verbal association, memory, and simple arithmetic problems. The founder of his work was the outstanding German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, who, experimentally studying human memory, discovers the differences between its two forms: implicit, which is expressed in facilitating memorization, and explicit, which is expressed in direct reproduction. He developed tests of implicit memorization and showed that material that is not directly reproduced, and also not recognized, is nevertheless present in memory, as it facilitates repeated learning. Studying the mental abilities of children, G. Ebbinghaus created in 1897. a test later named after him. He believed that an important characteristic of intelligence is the ability to combine and compose words into a meaningful whole. The “supplement” principle used in the test design is still widely used in psychodiagnostics. However, only the long-term work of A. Binet and his collaborators led to the creation of intelligence tests, which were destined for a long life.
With the research of A. Binet and his closest colleagues, the “purification” of the previously established series of tests from those that measured individual differences that were not directly related to intelligence began. Thus, theoretically and empirically, the contours of mental education, now called intelligence, were outlined (the ingenious solution to the problem of diagnosing intellectual level, given by A. Binet, consisted in the proposal to subject children to such tests (tests) that it is known at what age normal children correctly solve them).
However, this difference is not equally important for different age groups, since the development of intelligence is uneven. One year ahead or behind in intellectual development is much more important for a 4-year-old child than for a 12-year-old. In this regard, William Louis Stern proposed to define not an absolute measure of intelligence — difference, but a relative one.
So the famous coefficient (Intelligence Quotient), abbreviated IQ, appeared, the formula of which has the following form::
IQ = Mental age / chronological age * 100
Subsequently, the intelligence quotient will be expressed in units of standard deviation, which shows the ratio of the result of this subject to the average value of the distribution of results for his age. One of the variants of IQ tests created on the basis of this direction (multiple differentiation of different types/types of intelligence) is the Eysenck tests.
However, all of the above methods have one big drawback — they are aimed at people who grew up in a certain (Eurocentric) cultural paradigm. There is another type of methodology that is focused on measuring intelligence indicators, without biased linking it to the socio — cultural background-these are Raven Progressive Matrices. Raven matrices can be used on samples of subjects with any language composition and socio-cultural background, with any level of speech development.
Since three variants of Raven matrices are known, it should be noted that each of the variants is intended for conducting diagnostic work with a certain contingent of subjects.
1) Color progressive matrices (from 4.5-9 years old; subjects with abnormal development; rehabilitation studies of persons after 65 years)
2) Standard progressive matrices (children from 8-14 years old; adults from 20 to 65 years old)
3) Advanced progressive matrices (subjects with above-average intellectual abilities)
These are just the key areas that exist in the field of studying intellectual abilities, the process of their formation and development. I can't say for sure which ones are better and which ones are worse, because it all depends on the goals and objectives of the study.
Yes, everyone uses the Wexler test, which is old and reliable. Mental retardation is checked for it in psychiatry (confirmed)True, it is very difficult to pass it on a computer, you need someone who will read out, for example, words to test memory, check the knowledge of the”dictionary”. However, you can use only one memory scale from this large test, and then use a special table to translate its indicators into intelligence. However, this slightly reduces the accuracy… And, in general, intelligence tests are especially unnecessary for anyone. As one of the creators of such a test said when answering a question about what intelligence is: “Intelligence is what my test shows” That says it all)