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Explicit and not so much references to both the Odyssey and the Iliad are found in the story of the co-author of the script for the film Sentry by Arthur C. Clarke, which formed the basis of the 2001 Space Odyssey (1968), as well as in the subsequent series of novels used for the sequel Space Odyssey 2010 (1984). But who and how did not interpret these films!�
Let's start with Kubrick's own words in a 1965 interview: “A space Odyssey is in some ways related to Homer's Odyssey. We [Kubrick and Clark] realized that for the Greeks, long-distance sea travel was as mysterious and remote as space travel was for our generation, and that the overseas islands visited by the beautiful heroes of Homer were no less remote than the planets that our species would have to land on in the near future. The Odyssey is also related to the film's desire for curiosity, exploration, and adventure.”
At the same time, many modern researchers of Homer, for exampleDavid Sider, we are sure that the very structure of the story of Clark and Kubrick repeats both ancient Greek poems. And the reference in the title only confirms that the heroes ' journey will end on their native land, because the moral of Homer's poems is that any odyssey is a closing circle, a return to the starting point.�
At the same time, it is a well-known theory of Leonard Wet that Kubrick's version has a “triple allegory” (“Kubrick's 2001: A Triple Allegory”), and references to Homer make up only a third of it. First, the use of the theme “Thus spake Zarathustra” is a direct reference to Nietzsche's treatise of the same name, hinting at the position of humanity, the intermediate link between primate and Superman. Secondly, according to Wet, Clark himself in his novels explored only the potential symbiosis of man and machine, but in collaboration with Kubrick expanded this idea to three stages of evolution: from ape to man, from man to machine (unsuccessful) and from man to Superman/cosmic baby (successful).
Finally, in the names and storylines of the characters, parallels with the Odyssey are encrypted – at least in the interpretation of Wet. Bowman (“the Archer” – according to the legend about Luke, who couldn't pull none of the suitors of Penelope) correlated with Odysseus mourn for occupying her husband's marine research foreigner Elena with Helen of Troy, a detachment landed on the moon Dr. Floyd – with the outbreak of war with Menelaus, “one-eyed” HAL-9000 – Polifemo with Cyclops, who also conquered the “blinding”. At the same time, the name of the lunar monolith TMA-ONE is an anagram for “No Meat”, an allusion to the Trojan horse, the name of the actual lunar crater Tycho is closest to Troy, and the four ships shown in one of the first scenes of the film are compared to the goddesses Hera, Athena, Aphrodite and Eris involved in the trial of Paris.�
Most carefully, Wet analyzes the name of the hero of the film, which has already become the protagonist of the “Space Odyssey 2010″ – Heywood R. Floyd. It is assumed that HE means Helen of Troy, WOOD-Trojan horse, OY-Troy, Y-the union of ” and ” in Spanish, the remaining letters R, F and L – rebus �to the word ReFLect (reflect), and D means Downfall (fall). Thus, the name of the protagonist is “Helen and Wooden Horse Reflect Troy's Downfall” – The fall of Troy is reflected in Helen and the Trojan Horse.
Nothing! Except for the word “odyssey”. In Homer, this is a story about the specific life and specific wanderings of one person named Odysseus. By the twentieth century, the word “odyssey” had already acquired a slightly different meaning. This word began to denote the adventures and travels of any person or group of people in general. Stanley Kubrick takes the Odyssey concept to a new level. He makes his epic film in the middle of the twentieth century and gives it the name “Space Odyssey”. It tells us about the journey of humanity through time and space. It shows the history of people from the Stone Age to space travel. This is a story about what happened to humanity in this time travel. Thus, in Kubrick's interpretation, the word “odyssey” already refers to THE HISTORY of EARTH's CIVILIZATION.