2 Answers

  1. The first surnames originated in Ancient Rome. Initially, the surname meant belonging to a certain family, the descendants of which people are. Actually, the word familia is translated as “family”, “genus”.�

    In Russia, surnames appeared in the 14th century, when well-born people began to indicate the name of their noble ancestor instead of personal nicknames.

    The origin of surnames is different, but there are several variants of what they come from.

    Nicknames. In the first case, the names of parents, places of residence or occupation were mentioned in the root. Surnames formed from the name of the father were very popular.

    Therefore, people also have the same surnames, for example, the type of activity is a blacksmith. Well, not one person was a blacksmith at all. Or a name, you can't think of so many names so that each person has a unique name, their own. In the second case, they were given just the same nicknames, in which negative features of appearance or character were noticed.

  2. The increasing complexity of socio-economic relations, as well as the increase in the number of families and the complexity of their composition, led to the need to introduce another generic indicator. Most likely, the first surnames (in their modern sense) appeared in Italy at the turn of the X and XI centuries. Later, this tradition spread to France and other countries, where it was gradually consolidated by law.�

    On the territory of Russia, the mandatory family name was fixed only in the XVI century. Surnames were given to representatives of noble families: princes, boyars, and later nobles and large merchants. For the first time surnames of representatives of the peasantry began to occur in the period of the XVI-XVIII centuries, but their mass acquisition should be counted from the abolition of serfdom.

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