Why do we need positions in philosophy: physicalism, idealism, realism, etc.?
Were they invented to explain the world as it is? As in science, for example, scientific facts, and in philosophy create different worldviews that explain the universe? Can philosophical worldviews be a reality? Take, for example, subjective idealism. Can a cone that has fallen in the forest make a sound if I (the subject) am not looking at it? Does this bump exist? Can subjective idealism be a "scientific fact"? What if a bump has fallen, but I (the subject) can't see the bump, does it exist?
Positions in philosophy arose from the fact that human thought gave meanings and meanings to the objects and phenomena under consideration, observing them from different points of view. The world is unique, complex, mysterious, “faceted”, that is, multi-faceted, and various directions of philosophy have emerged as an attempt to identify one of the facets and distinguish it as the root, main, dominant, etc. Sometimes this is similar to the parable of the Elephant and the Five Wise Men – in its analogy, all philosophers talk about the same observable world and simply “touch” different parts of the elephant.
But of course, I know. I once talked to a philosopher from Kaluga. He told me. that I came to the conclusion that 3 laws of dialectics are not enough to explain the modern world. And he formulated the 4th law. I don't remember the Law itself, my philosophy is simpler. But I asked him why he would not publish his point of view and speak at the philosophical readings in Kaluga. He replied that in the USSR there is such an academician Kedrov,the main philosopher, and without his approval it is impossible to publish anything or talk about anything publicly. And the philosopher Kedrov professed a Marxist-Leninist philosophy, which was formulated in the KGB. And it was the only advanced and correct one.
Of course, there was no idealism in the USSR, it was purely mercantile petty materialism, self-serving, and it led the country to new victories and so it led. Now the same philosophers have a new source of knowledge-the Bible and the old guiding force.
I'll tell you for a laugh. In the Army, in a class on the course “aircraft and engine”, an elderly major talked about the characteristics of the IL-28 bomber and called the number “M” of the bomber. Our cadet take and say from the spot, not the number ” M ” and the number of MACH. There was one cadet in the class who was expelled from the Polytechnic Institute. The rest of the cadets were much less literate and had never heard of the “M” number or the “MACh”number in their lives
Our Major ordered the cadet to stand up and told him that his education
mind does not give. I remember how the cadet's face was covered with blood. The sight was very unpleasant.
The fact is that MACH was an Austrian idealist physicist-i.e. a churchman, and he formulated this number, which means the ratio of the speed of an airplane or rocket to the speed of sound.
The name MACH was banned in the USSR, but since this concept was used all over the world as a ratio of speeds, they left just the number “M”.
The major didn't need any trouble from Suslov and all the political officers in the Soviet Army at all and he put the cadet in his place
That was the philosophy in the USSR. Now it looks like the country is going back in time. With congratulations…