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  1. In principle, it can be argued that the thalamus (or visual tubercle) is a subcortical center through which all types of sensitivity pass – visual, auditory, skin-kinesthetic, as well as introceptive (sensitivity of receptors located in internal organs).
    In the thalamus, stimuli from the external and internal environment are integrated, after which they enter the cerebral cortex.�

    The thalamic nuclei are functionally divided into three classes: specific, non-specific, and associative.

    • Specific thalamic nuclei receive signals from receptors in the skin, eyes, ear, and muscle system. The main function of neurons that make up specific nuclei is to switch information that goes to the PD cortex from the corresponding receptors.�

    Local damage to certain specific nuclei leads to the loss of sensitivity types corresponding to the affected area.

    • The associative nuclei of the thalamus are associated, among other things, with the associative zones of the cerebral cortex, which connect newly incoming sensory information with previously received and stored in memory, and also compare information received from different receptors. Sensory signals are interpreted and used to determine the most appropriate responses, which are selected in the associative zone and transmitted to the associated motor zone.

    • Non-specific thalamic nuclei, among other things, are closely connected to many brain systems, including the reticular formation, and play an important role in regulating the processes of neuron activation, sleep and wakefulness regulation.�

    Thus, the thalamic nuclei participate in various types of mental activity: all sensory information from the external and internal environment comes here, is integrated and transmitted to higher levels, including associative, and then to the motor zones of the cortex, which ensures the formation of various motor reactions that integrate with the vegetative processes that provide these movements, and information is exchanged with the energy block of the brain, which regulates the corresponding nervous activity necessary for the execution of motor programs.�

    Damage to the thalamic nuclei caused by mechanical damage or organic pathologies can disrupt all of the above processes and, depending on the severity, can lead to complete loss of sensitivity and motor activity (coma).

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