One Answer

  1. The very concept of “being” did not arise immediately, and this word is finally confirmed as a term only in the poem of Parmenides, who contrasted being as the domain of truth and non-being, the negation of being as the domain of opinion. The pre-Socratics did not distinguish between being and existence, a distinction only confirmed by Plato, and between being and substance (essence), a distinction only confirmed by Aristotle. Therefore, when we read “Thales claimed that everything is water / out of water”, we were referring to the desire to establish the unity of things, pointing to the properties of water as those that can be extended to other things (connectivity, movement, various states). Of course, for the sake of simplicity, we can say that the pre-Socratics identified being with some principle or principles, without explaining what it is, which will not contradict the Greek correspondence of the word principle-arche.

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