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  1. If you mean ontological determinism (the position that everything in the world is really predetermined), then in science and philosophy there are as many – very many-arguments against as for. For example, such scientists as Heisenberg, Dirac, Bohr, Schrodinger, De Broglie, and others were supporters of indeterminism, which is based on the statement that the physical universe contains ontologically non-deterministic components (in particular, in quantum physics). One of the founders of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the physical chemist Ilya Prigozhin, was convinced that indeterminism is the basis for complex systems. Some biologists have believed and still believe that evolution is impossible without an indefinite component – for example, Nobel Laureate Jacques Monod and Nobel laureate Gerald Edelman. Rather, we can say that indeterminism is more popular in modern science.

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