3 Answers

  1. Well, yes, this is a known error of the author (unless he meant something completely non-standard in meaning).

    Deduction is a movement from the general to the particular. Using the classic example:

    General: all people are mortal

    Special case: Socrates is a human being

    Deductive conclusion: Socrates is mortal

    Induction is a movement from the particular to the general.

    Special case: the man Socrates is mortal.

    Special case: the man Plato is mortal.

    Inductive conclusion: Humans are mortal

    And when we talk about the deductive method in the stories, in fact, it is closer to induction – Holmes takes special cases (dirt on a shoe, scratches on a watch) and builds a general picture. He also uses deduction, but less often. But this is only at first glance

    Strictly speaking, a little earlier than Conan Doyle, there was a man like Charles Pierce. And he coined the term abduction , which means finding possible causes from consequences.

    General: all people are mortal.

    Consequence: Socrates is mortal.

    Abductive conclusion: Socrates is probably a human being.

    That is, abduction does not necessarily allow us to come to the right conclusion (Socrates can be a cat and also be mortal), but it allows us to create a logical theory within the framework of some system.

    And, in fact, it is abduction that Sherlock Holmes uses.

    Using an example of how this happens. Holmes knows that Watson is a doctor, and sees that he has good posture. He assumes that he is a military doctor. This is an inductive movement (a general picture is collected from two particular signs), but not strict-a person could, for example, get a doctor's degree after being discharged from the army, or get a good posture without being a military man. That is, Holmes uses abduction – builds a plausible hypothesis.

    Then he says that you have an emaciated face, so you were ill. This is a deductive movement (from a general condition to a particular cause), but also not strict – a person may have an emaciated face due to overwork or improper nutrition, for example. But this particular variant, with the disease, coincides with the conclusions of the previous abductive assumption. And from a few abductive conclusions, Holmes puts together a general picture: Watson is a military doctor who fought in Afghanistan.

    Such cases.

  2. Although Sherlock Holmes says “my deductive method,” in reality he uses both deductive and inductive methods in his multiple deductions.

    To speak of a concept or proposition as deductive or inductive is definitely possible only in relation to a single concept or proposition. In the chain of inferences, there are both.

    Sherlock Holmes deduces particular propositions from what is generally known or creates them on the basis of his own observations and assessments, then builds up his inductive conclusions from a series of such propositions.

  3. induction and deduction are not exactly opposites, and the teacher sees them that way.

    deduction (literally from-deduce) this is what Holmes uses according to Conandoyle and according to his contemporaries. Holmes proceeds from accurate observations (premises) and draws strict logical conclusions (conclusions) … that is, it uses the deductive method (the method of strict conclusions)… or-from private to general

    induction (literally from-enter) this is the introduction of a particular object to the number of generalizations of other objects based on a certain feature .. or, on the basis of the general attribute, add a private – from general to private.


    but in spite of everything, you should listen to the teacher's opinion, because he should pass the exam, and not Holmes.

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