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  1. As accessible as possible *(and inevitably simplified):

    Positivism was the” first phase ” of the doctrine (19c), which has 4 phases, and the 4th is just postpositivism (50s – 20c). (I'm not talking about 2 and 3, because they are not in the question).

    The main idea of positivism (1): it is necessary to rely on empirical research, and theoretical constructions – “metaphysics, philosophy, that's all” – are superfluous. (Yes, philosophy has the privilege of periodically denying itself.) It is also not important how the knowledge developed – it is important to achieve the highest, completely scientific, i.e. “positive” knowledge. Hence the name – positivism.

    (then stages 2 and 3 develop the idea, denying something, introducing something, and finally:)

    Basic ideaPostpositivism (2): “objective scientific” knowledge seems to be doubtful, because in different epochs people imagined very differently what “objective”, “scientific”, “facts”, etc.Therefore, it is very important to study the history of knowledge.�

    Everything that seems to us “just a fact” is in fact also based on a certain theoretical construction that is accepted in our era. We just rarely notice it. Therefore, it is precisely necessary to study different theoretical constructions about what “scientific knowledge” and” facts ” are in different epochs, so as not to be mistaken, like the first positivists, and not to build illusions that we have now achieved the objectivity and scientific nature of truth in its entirety.

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