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  1. Medieval philosophy is a long period in the history of European philosophy, which is directly related to the Christian religion (VII-early XV centuries AD). In the European history of philosophy, this period is usually called the era of scholasticism, when the systematic development of Christian philosophy takes place in the context of interrupting the line of ancient tradition and eliminating dissent, since the process of philosophizing was under constant control by the institution of the church. Science and philosophy were hailed as the” handmaids ” of theology. Basic principles: 1. Complete worship of God and unquestioning fulfillment of the will of the church-this is the main general characteristic of medieval philosophy. 2. God created the world out of nothing in seven days. Therefore, people owe everything they have to him. History is interpreted as the fulfillment of a divine plan. God is guiding humanity to the coming of the kingdom of God on earth. 3. The Bible is the oldest and truest book, God's word. His Covenant is an object of faith, the only evaluative measure for all theories and philosophies. 4. The authority of the Church. The true author worth listening to is God. The most authoritative interpreters of his creation and revelations are the Church fathers. A person is allowed to explore the world as a commentator. True knowledge belongs only to God. 5. The art of interpreting the New and Old Testaments. The Bible is the only criterion of truth. It is a complete set of laws of being. Scripture is the beginning and end of all philosophical theories. It is the basis for reflection: words and meanings, general content, and ideas are analyzed. 6. Teaching and edification: a general attitude towards upbringing, education, and advancement toward salvation, i.e., toward God. Form – treatises, dialogues of teachers and listening students. The main qualities are: encyclopedic, high level of knowledge of Scripture and mastery of the basics of Aristotle's formal logic. 7. Optimism as a shared spirit. God is incomprehensible, but his instructions can be understood through faith. The possibility of one's own salvation, resurrection, and eternal life, the ultimate triumph (on a cosmic scale) of Christian truth. Symbiosis of the holy and the worldly. Christian philosophy uses the following forms of knowledge: insight, intuitive knowledge, intelligence, and Divine revelation. In its development, medieval philosophy went through three stages and, accordingly, directions: 1. Apologetics. The possibilities of building a holistic worldview based on the text of Holy Scripture were substantiated. The main representatives of medieval philosophy at this stage are Saints Origen and Tertullian. 2. Patristics (from Lat. pater – father) – a set of theological (theological), philosophical and political-sociological doctrines of Christian thinkers of the II – VIII centuries, who are commonly called “holy fathers (and teachers) of the church”. The period of renewal of Christian dogma, establishment of public order and determination of the role of the church for society. Medieval philosophy at this stage is represented by Augustine Aurelius and John Chrysostom. The fathers of the Christian Church consider the Bible to be the absolute truth and claim that God is beyond the realm of the intelligible and sensuous, which means that it is impossible to define him in words. The only way to know is through faith. All the troubles and evil, the wrong choice of people themselves. 3. Scholasticism( from the Greek scholastikos – school, scholar), a type of religious philosophy characterized by combining theological and dogmatic premises with rationalistic methodology and an interest in formal logical problems; it was most developed in the Zap. Europe in the Middle Ages. Interpretation and justification of the main religious dogmas. At this time, medieval philosophy was represented by Thomas Aquinas and Anselm of Canterbury. They believed that absolutely all knowledge about our world can be found in the Bible and the works of Aristotle. They must be extracted from somewhere by interpretation. Nominalism, a branch of medieval scholastic philosophy that, in contrast to realism, denied the real existence of general concepts( universals), considering them only names (Latin nomen – name, nominalis – nominal, hence the name). That is, nominalists believed that the general exists only after things. It appeared in the XI-XII centuries, received a special development in the XIV-XV centuries. Realism (from the Middle-century Latin. realis – material, real), in philosophy – a direction that recognizes a reality lying outside of consciousness, which is interpreted either as the existence of ideal objects (Plato, medieval scholasticism), or as an object of knowledge independent of the subject, cognitive process and experience (philosophy of realism of the XX century). Medieval realism argued that universals (general concepts) exist really and independently of consciousness.

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