One Answer

  1. A question straight out of the medieval philosophy exam 🙂

    If we are talking about Western medieval philosophy (i.e., essentially Christian), then the first thing that comes to mind is, of course, Christianity itself. Philosophy in this period was an attempt to interpret the Bible and find answers to philosophical questions in Christianity. Late medieval philosophy (scholasticism) tried to combine the teachings of Aristotle with Christianity. Medieval philosophy is also called the handmaid of theology: it arose and developed in order to prove the existence of God and other religious postulates by philosophical methods. In fact, the entire philosophical discourse of that time took place within the framework of Christian dogmas, with some variations in their interpretation (it is interesting to trace the difference in views among Abelard, Occam and Scotus, who, although with different styles, played on the same field and in the same game).

    The philosophy of some thinkers was also influenced by the political situation of that period: the creation of kingdoms, the formation of monarchies, and the subsequent separation of church and state. Examples include John Wicklef in England, the Hussites in the Czech Republic, and the Lutherans in Germany. In general, the philosophy of the Reformation is a reaction to what I described in the first part of the answer: the church was too active in worldly spheres, which neither kings nor philosophers liked.

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