4 Answers

  1. I don't know much about philosophy or psychology, but if I remember correctly, gender is simply defined as “social gender.” Further, based on the differences in typical male and typical female behavior in different cultures, wild tribes, and so on, it is not difficult to see that often such behaviors are different from each other and are largely determined by culture. If you think about it a little more, you can come to the conclusion that the social gender undergoes quite significant changes with the development of humanity, which means that at least some of it is a socio-cultural function. However, some features of human biology still determine, so to speak, the skeleton of gender.

    And if you think about it a little more, then a person is a terribly complex and interesting thing, and to hell with going into this jungle without a specialized education.

  2. The most commonly accepted definition is that of gender as social gender, i.e. those differences between the sexes, such as in behavior and abilities, that are shaped by society and the external environment. There is no single point of view about the role of social and biological factors in human behavior, both about the impact on differences between the sexes in behavior, and on human behavior in general. Even in feminism, there are essentialist trends that consider gender-dependent behavior biologically conditioned. Social constructivism, including the gender approach in feminism, links gender and other differences between social groups or individual differences in behavior to the influence of society. As an argument in favor of social conditioning of behavior, the dependence of social norms and real commands depending on the place and time, the ability of people to master a variety of activities and behavioral patterns, and others are given. A biological explanation can be useful in justifying social inequality, and research that claims to be scientific can play a role that was previously assigned to religion, which still retains its influence. Essentialist theories should be treated critically.

    Gender roles and identity are shaped by economics, politics, and culture, including literature, art, media, religion, and family and school education. These roles influence moral norms, emotions, needs, consciousness and self-awareness, assessment of oneself, other people and the world around us. They lead to different and unequal positions of women and men, in professional and other social relationships and in personal relationships, putting women in a worse position as a group compared to men, but limiting the majority of men to gender norms. Inequality in ownership and power contributes to the support of gender roles, but these roles themselves contribute to gender inequality. Social norms and perceptions portray women and men as different and unequal, which often manifests itself in real behavior. It is known from psychology that attributing a certain quality can manifest itself in real behavior, but in the case of judging this quality, the effect can also be reversed. Both deviation from following social roles and, especially for women, following gender roles that are encouraged in women, but are considered negative qualities, can be condemned and punished. They can, most often in women, deny abilities and interests. It is encouraged, including by religion, to mindlessly follow social norms and prohibitions, or these norms are justified by mythical biological factors with the claim to be scientific, so that people do not critically reflect and change their views. One of the conditions for achieving gender equality is an awareness and critical understanding of the fact that gender differences are a consequence of the unequal status of women and men in society, if possible applied in real cases.

  3. Technically, no. Gender does not determine a person's position in society, responsibilities, or norms of behavior. In fact, yes. Men should defend their homeland, serve in the army, women-Kinder, K├╝che, Kirche, etc.

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