3 Answers

  1. To try to form a just state, we must first determine how we will understand justice.

    The fact that justice is a shaky concept, and the same state structure can be fair and unfair, wrote Plato. In The State, he defended the idea that justice is not equal to literal equality, his utopia is based on the power of an enlightened minority-the aristocracy. Selection to this class is carried out strictly and in stages, and the rest of the citizens-warriors and commoners-are obliged to recognize their authority. At the same time, as for property rights, here he just defended the idea of literal equality — in his utopia, private property is prohibited, and labor is distributed according to ability.

    This is just one of the possible and perhaps the most ancient and well-known examples of an attempt to build a model of a just state.

    Different approaches to what is justice are reflected in the variety of possible contemporary political views. So, a person of conditionally “right” views will consider that property inequality caused by the market is fair, and for a supporter of conditionally “left” views, justice is when the rich share with the poor, in the extreme form- “take everything away and divide it”.

    And this applies only to property issues, but the creator of an ideally just state also needs to decide how he will ensure equal rights for representatives of different races, religious, political and other beliefs, people of different ages and genders, educational levels, etc.Or, on the contrary, we can say that equal rights are not justice, but it is fair to give only a part of citizens greater rights. The combination of answers to these and many other questions provides the world with people of diverse political views-from liberal Democrats and national conservatives to anarcho-capitalists and Orthodox space communists (sic!).

    In recent years, such a trend of political thought as libertarianism has been gaining popularity. The ideology of libertarianism in the modern sense of the word is based on the idea of nonviolence (“non-initiation of violence”), it protects both economic freedoms (both “right” ideologies) and personal (“left”). The libertarian is convinced that any person is naturally endowed with rights and free will, he is free to enter and leave any relationship at will. Thus, libertarian justice is the resolution of all voluntary relationships (and the absence of obstacles to their protection) and the prohibition of all violent relationships. The former, for example, includes any commercial activity that does not violate the freedoms of others, or, for example, intimate relationships between consenting adults. The second category includes taxes, conscription, and much more. Robert Nozick, a modern libertarian evangelist, defended the idea that the state as a whole violates rather than protects citizens 'freedoms, and its function should be reduced to the role of”night watchman” – an intermediary and defender in the event of an immediate threat to freedoms. And according to the anarcho-capitalist approach, the state is not needed at all – that is, according to this branch of libertarianism, “a just state is the absence of a state.”

    In practice, no one has yet succeeded in creating a libertarian state, but this is not to say that attempts are not being made. Thus, on the border of Serbia and Croatia, on an unoccupied territory (the so — called terra nullius), Liberland was founded a year ago-a country not yet recognized by any “official” state, whose constitution is based on libertarian ideas. Libertarian parties also exist in many countries.

    Let's summarize. To create a fair state, we need to define what justice is. To do this, you need to decide which values (ideology, understanding of what is good and what is bad – we can call it whatever you want) this state will protect. The same Plato considered his model of the state fair, but he would hardly have found the support of the broad masses today. The majority of modern society would hardly accept his idea that illegitimate children, for example, should be destroyed for the sake of social stability. What we take as a basic value-individual freedoms, property equality, religious dogmas or something else-will determine what our just state will be like and whether it is realistic to create it in modern conditions or in the future.

  2. STALIN's repressions-from the teachings of ENGELS and according to LENIN's instructions.PUTIN's repressions are from academicians of the post-Soviet VERTICAL of ONE-MAN POWER (the Kingdom of the Sovereign).The doctrine of Marx: taking away property with the use of collective labor in favor of the” people's ” rapist state, and the doctrine of post-Soviet economists:property for the sake of life-affirmation of the ADMINISTRATIVE BUDGET at the expense of “businessmen”with the use of HIRED LABOR of DECEIVED CITIZENS who are deprived of the right to accumulate pension,medical, educational, etc. finances on their own (independent of the state) PERSONAL ACCOUNTS.Dissent is being prosecuted. Where and when did you see the law on political parties? The topic has not been studied and is deliberately kept secret…I ask you to distribute information since 1990. – I get a refusal, isolation and blocking.Reprisals from citizens. Distinguish the variety of types of persecution and punishments in the subject of the teachings on the state and society.

  3. To begin with, it is impossible to form a fair society because in the broadest sense it does not exist, but only individual individuals exist. It is quite easy to form a fair state on the contrary.�

    What is a state? The state is a set of institutions. So we need to create a theory for assessing the fairness of state institutions. Perhaps the most widely known (which is not necessarily true) is John Rawls ' theory of justice. The basic premise of his theory is the following thought experiment: imagine that we need to invent a state, but we don't know anything about our place in it, we don't know anything about our gender, race, age, abilities, talents, social status. Rawls concludes (which is obvious to him) that people who conduct such an experiment will necessarily invent a state where the consequences of such inequality will be minimized as much as possible.�

    Further he puts forward two principles by which it is proposed to measure the fairness of the state:

    • each person should have the most complete set of fundamental freedoms, which will not violate the freedoms of others;

    • social and economic inequality should be managed in such a way that::

    a) bring the greatest benefit to the least fortunate members of society (that is, inequality is fair as long as it benefits the conditionally poor)

    b) elective positions are available to all based on equal opportunities

    According to Rawls, the most just state would be some version of democratic socialism.

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