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The universe is a matrix. In truth, there is nothing to explain. This theory of the Matrix, if not completely, then partially described in the following films: “The Matrix”, “Introduction”, “Tron”, “Avatar”, “The 13th Floor”. But in short:
The Matrix / hologram theory is also called the Simulation Hypothesis – it is a philosophical statement that reality is a simulation (most often, that it is a computer simulation). To make the simulation look realistic for the recipient, the program adapts to their perception, forming material objects, the recipient's mind and consciousness. The main work in this area is considered to be the article by Nick Bostrom “Proof of simulation”. The simulation hypothesis is studied in such philosophical areas as futurology and transhumanist theory.
The holographic principle (GP) is an UNPROVEN (but not refuted) hypothesis that all information contained in a certain region of space can be fully described at the boundary of this region and in some sense exists on it. The consequence is that the maximum entropy of a certain region of space is independent of the volume of this region (all other things being equal, the maximum entropy in the GP framework depends on the surface area, and not on the volume, as in classical physics).
To real holograms (an interference image on a two-dimensional photographic plate, for example, which allows you to create a three-dimensional image) all this is irrelevant: the name is given simply by analogy (“three-dimensional” information about the volume can be recorded on its two-dimensional surface), but a real hologram is not a wrapper for the space captured on it.
The idea of GP appeared as one of the attempts to explain quantum teleportation and other quantum effects that are not related to gravity. But now this hypothesis is popular in connection with gravity:
The holographic principle is not directly related to the Universe as an illusion (“simulation”) (rather, string theory hints at this – even with GP, even without it) – even if it is ever confirmed (which is not a fact).
Apparently, this means the holographic principle. This has nothing to do with” simulation”. The point is that a physical system in a volume (and this volume can be the entire universe) can also be described on the surface of this volume.
Initially, a hologram is generally a photographic plate that stores a “three-dimensional” photo. Volume is achieved due to tricky wave effects, interference. If you look at such a plate under a microscope , you will see random patterns. But if you shine a laser on the plate, its waves interfere with these patterns and you will see the photo in real tride. Interestingly, the information is “smeared” all over the plate, so that if you cut the plate-each of the parts will still store the whole photo.
So it is with the universe. If we imagine a mental surface around it, then everything that we observe here around us can be described by all sorts of random patterns on it. It is now known that this works. The holographic principle is already used in practice – it is a powerful tool for computing.
It hardly makes sense to ask what is reality, “volume” or”surface”. Neither one nor the other. Reality is what it is, and “volume” and “surface” are the theories to describe it, which turned out to be equivalent.