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  1. Robert Nozick. “Anarchy, the State and utopia”.�

    For “Anarchy, the State and Utopia” (1974) Nozick won the National Book Award in the Philosophy and Religion category. In the book, Nozick argues that only a minimal state “limited only by the function of protection against force, theft, fraud, contract enforcement, etc.” can be justified without violating people's rights. For Nozick, the distribution of goods is justified only if it is caused by a free exchange by mutual consent. In his theory, Nozick refers to one of the formulations of Immanuel Kant's “categorical imperative”, which boils down to the fact that people should be considered as an end, not as a means.

    Nozick challenged the partial conclusion of the “Second Principle of Justice” of John Rawls ' “Theory of Justice “that” social and economic inequalities should be organized in such a way as to be of the greatest benefit to the least well-off members of society.” Anarchy, the State, and Utopia claims a legacy from John Locke's Second Treatise on Government and seeks to base itself on natural legal doctrine, but differs in several important conclusions from Locke's Treatise. Nozick defends the need for a” minimal state “(the” night watchman “State) and criticizes the” social state ” theory for violence against individuals.

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