2 Answers

  1. To understand this aphorism of F. Nietzsche, I will give an analogy from the world of art. At first (more often during his apprenticeship), the artist sees everything that he has created as beautiful. Then, as he develops, he sees flaws in his works. Sometimes he is ashamed of them (he did not work properly, did not work carefully enough, was too focused on the result, etc.). But then there comes a time when the artist becomes ashamed of the shortcomings in other people's works. He watches a movie and blushes for the authors. If he reads a book , he is ashamed of the writer. This happens because the artist eventually develops the skill of identifying with any other artist. It makes it easier for him to understand someone else's art. Together with the author, he traces all the twists and turns of creating an artistic image.

    Let's return to F. Nietzsche. At the beginning of his journey, a person only learns the norms of human morality. Each of his actions he measures with universal norms, rejoices in moral achievements or is upset because of mistakes. In society, such chagrin often comes in the form of shame. In the process of moral development, he is more and more consistent with moral norms, which are also constantly expanding and becoming more complex for him. And there comes a time when moral norms become its essence. He can already see their imperfections and correct them without fear of harming others. He no longer possesses morality, but becomes a moral man himself. And the morality of others, he now does not so much assess how much he lives. Lives the other person's act as your own. At this stage, he becomes not just ashamed, but mentally hurt because of the moral mistakes of the other. But he can't help it. After all, the other one needs to go all the way on his own. This is the shame of your own impotence with all your achievements.

  2. Because immorality is below the first step, but morality is not the top step at all – it is the middle level of the ladder, the level of the “gray mass”. This range is what I would call boilerplate thinking, where you mindlessly follow certain rules. But what goes above morality can be argued – I think this is a rejection of feelings in favor of global reasonableness and/or individual culture and / or spirituality.

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