2 Answers

  1. The main directions of philosophy can be distinguished by the subject of study, its problems:

    • Ontology is the study of being (the study of matter, motion, space, time, and consciousness).
    • Epistemology is the study of cognition (the study of the structure of cognition, the problems of cognizability of the world, truth and its criteria, sensory and rational thinking and creativity).
    • Philosophical anthropology (the study of the nature and essence of man, individuality and personality, values and their role in people's lives, the meaning of existence).
    • Social philosophy (the study of society and its interaction with nature, the main spheres of social life).

    It can also be noted that philosophy penetrates into all spheres of our life, so we can distinguish, for example, philosophical problems of science, technology, culture, etc.

  2. The main trends can be considered materialism and idealism. But to understand it, one must also become familiar with dualism, empiricism, and rationalism.

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