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  1. If you are talking about Westerners of the XIX century, then the radicalization of the ideas of Westerners was due to the fact that the main part of their program was implemented already in the XIX century, in 1861 with the abolition of serfdom. Westerners then actually split into moderates (Kavelin, Chicherin, etc. “constitutionalists”) and the emerging first revolutionary democrats (Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov), and then simply revolutionary narodniks, Marxists, and anarchists. I must say that the same anarchists can only conditionally be considered “Westerners”, as well as”narodniks”. The ideas of the Russian Narodniks and anarchists could not be found in the West; they borrowed nothing from the West, except the very idea of changing the conditions of social development. Anarchocommunism and anarchocollectivism generally originated in Russia, and modern anarchists in the West read Russian anarchists and carry their portraits at political demonstrations. It was ridiculous: in 1968, as part of the Red May campaign, in France, French anarchists carried three portraits – a portrait of P. A. Kropotkin (a Russian anarchocommunist), a portrait of M. A. Bakunin (a Russian anarchocollectivist) and N. I. Makhno (a Russian anarchoplatformist). Zh. Proudhon, who is considered the progenitor and founder of anarchism , did not receive such an honor.

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