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Cosmos — a term born in ancient Greek philosophy, denoting the universe, understood as a single, harmonious, ordered, living whole (opposed to chaos, or the primary, not yet formed state of the Universe). An overview of the history of this term can be found in the Wikipedia article of the same name.
In his integral philosophy Ken Wilber refers to the Pythagorean-Platonic notion of “Space” (Kosmos) to denote predominating vision of the evolutionary unfolding of the Universe as a Whole, including not only the material aspect (fizioter), but the measurement of living organisms (biosphere), the measurement of sentient beings (the noosphere) and the dimension of the divine, or spiritual (theosphere, or brewmaster).
Usually “c osmos” refers only to the physical universe, but Wilber emphasizes that in reality, a holistic, non-reductive vision of the Cosmos implies the inclusion of not only surface manifestations, but also Depth — internal facets, as well as evolutionary levels of protosubjectivity, subjectivity, consciousness and spirit.
Figure 1. Quadrants of the AQAL Integral model by Ken Wilber
In Wilber's integral cartography, the Cosmos has internal and external dimensions, as well as dimensions of individual and collective phenomena. This gives a combination of 4 perspectives on any event (any event of the Cosmos at any moment can be viewed from within, from the perspective of consciousness, from the outside, from the perspective of matter, from the individual perspective and from the perspective of the interaction of individual phenomena with each other). Wilber calls these perspectives “quadrants” (see Figure 1).
Genuine, truly holistic (i.e., integral) “the theory of everything”, in contrast to the very limited physical theories “only”, in reality, should include, from the point of view of Wilbur, is actually (key processes of evolution of consciousness and culture), and not just describe physical interactions at the micro or macro level. Wilber gives a description of the integral vision in the books “A brief history of everything“, “Integral spirituality“, “Theory of Everything”, “Integral Vision”.
In philosophy, “cosmos” is the concept of a world ordered in a well-organized system. The cosmos is contrasted with “chaos” – a disorderly accumulation of matter.
Plato imagines the ” cosmos “as created by the Demiurge [or Quantum Mechanics Observer], a living being in the shape of a doughnut with a” soul “in the center, suspended in”nothingness”.
Later, the term ” cosmos “was completely replaced by the term”universe”.
In modern colloquial language, the word “cosmos “is used in the sense of” order”,” rank”,” device”,” beauty”,” babble”, and so on.