2 Answers

  1. In philosophy, there is a concept of pluralism of being, which postulates the presence of many substances. An example of this approach is the teaching of the famous German philosopher and mathematician G. Leibniz about the so-called monads. Leibniz understood monads as special spiritual units, substances, the highest of which he considered God. The German philosopher compared monads with human souls: they, like the soul of an individual, are a kind of closed world, a special microcosm, feeling and thinking. Therefore, he postulates the presence in the entire universe of such “living”, spiritual entities-monads, which can be represented by analogy with genes in living nature, which, as is known, are units of heredity, “living molecules”. The only difference is that genes are material entities, while Leibniz's monads are spiritual entities.

  2. According to Leibniz, the Monad is an indivisible particle, which is,in fact, an eternal substance.
    He also has a “hierarchy of monads”, starting from the smallest (particles of matter= > animals/plants=> > man= > > God), it is much more extensive, but the general essence is this.

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