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  1. An atomic fact in Wittgenstein's philosophy is a simple statement of a certain empirical state of affairs. Examples of atomic facts: “this book is on the table”, “this book is on the floor”, “this book is on the shelf of the cabinet”, etc.�

    The world is, according to the “Logical-philosophical Treatise”, a set of facts, both having a place to be and not having a place to be. Together, they provide an exhaustive description of the world. For example, of the three specified facts for the same book, one will be the case, and the rest will not be the case. Together, these facts give us a complete description of reality.�

    Note that knowing that “it is not true that the book is on the table” is just as important as knowing that “the book is on the table”. For example, you are told: “Bring me a book from the table.” You go, but there is no book. Then you state that the atomic fact “the book is lying on the table” does not take place. Therefore, the world is a collection of facts, both having and not having a place to be.

    Any meaningful sentence, according to the “Logical-philosophical Treatise”, can be reduced to a set of atomic facts. If a sentence cannot be reduced to atomic facts, it is not meaningful.

    Later, in Philosophical Studies, Wittgenstein revised his understanding of language and abandoned the reduction of meaningful sentences to atomic facts in favor of the concept of language games.

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