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  1. Kantian philosophy is based on the juxtaposition of empirical and a priori types of knowledge. If in the knowledge of nature, Kant argued, “Experience is the source of truth,” then the laws of morality cannot be deduced from existing relationships among people. For this reason, a scientific concept of morality and law, similar to the natural sciences, cannot be formed in a belief. The task of moral philosophy is to determine, starting from reason, the general rules of behavior that a person must follow in his empirical existence. The question of what is the general criterion of justice, the lawyer will never be able to cope, ” if only he does not leave aside the empirical basis for a while and does not look for the key of judgments in reason alone.” If these conditions are met, ethics, together with the theory of law, becomes a science. In Kant's teaching, the problem of the scientific status of ethics was raised, in other words, problems were raised about the originality of the methods used in the theory of law, in comparison with the methods of natural sciences. Since people are equal among themselves as representatives of the genus, each individual has an absolute moral value for the other. Kant's ethics thus affirmed the primacy of the universal over egoistic aspirations, and emphasized the moral responsibility of the individual for what is happening in the world.

    Also, Kant's legal theory is directly related to ethics. This is due to the fact that law and morality have the same source (practical human reason) and a common task (the establishment of universal freedom). The philosopher saw the difference between them in the methods of coercion to actions. Morality is based on a person's internal motivations and awareness of their own duty, while law uses external obligations on the part of other individuals or countries to grant such actions. In the sphere of morality, there are no generally binding codes in accordance with this, while the possibility with the need implies the presence of public legislation guaranteed by compulsory force.

    If we explain it in a more understandable language, then Imanuel Kant claimed the existence of “things in themselves” that are inaccessible to our knowledge, which are the source of our sensations, but their true nature, form, and essence cannot be known, and the question of whether our ideas about objects in the external world are similar to these objects themselves has no answer.The claim that success and the possibility of practical activity are evidence that our view of the objective world is correct can be refuted.

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