- Why did everyone start to hate the Russians if the U.S. did the same thing in Afghanistan, Iraq?
- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
- Why did Blaise Pascal become a religious man at the end of his life?
- How do I know if a guy likes you?
- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
Philosophers have long noticed that a person, based on his own intellectual capabilities, is able to discover many so necessary (for man and science) – ideas, principles, concepts, knowledge, truths. Of course, all this becomes possible from the existence of an innate mind in a person and the corresponding abilities that follow from it. In this connection, how can we not refer to the laconic but succinct and precise definition of metaphysics presented to German philosophers by Immanuel Kant? According to him, metaphysics “is … knowledge a priori, or from pure understanding and pure reason.”
For ancient Greek philosophers, it was the main “tool” (and methodology) of philosophical cognition. The philosopher Plato says that with the help of thinking alone, many philosophical truths can be learned…
The ancient Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu thought about the same thing in essence. Surprisingly, the fact is that they (and their contemporaries) are separated by thousands and thousands of kilometers, and any communication (as we usually understand it) between them is out of the question. And he (in essence) thinks in the same way as the Ancient Greeks: “Without leaving the courtyard,” writes the philosopher, ” you can know the world. Without looking out of the window, one can see the natural dao. The further you go, the less you learn. Therefore the perfectly wise one does not walk, but knows [everything]. Without seeing [things], he penetrates their [essence].”
So, what is metaphysics based on?
To explain this, they refer to the fact that the soul is essentially self-sufficient. It is < definitely > both objective and necessary, since in its depths (bases) it is identified with the corresponding reality of the <definitely><whole> world. It contains intelligence, and it is not just the intelligence we normally think of. After all, in the soul, the universal mind and at the same time the entire universe are represented in some deep way, but again in some ideal and potential way. “Here… I consider,” writes Spinoza, ” the human body to be part of the universe. As for the human soul (mens), I also consider it part of the universe. For I recognize that in nature there is also an infinite capacity (potentia) of thinking( cogitandi), which, in so far as it is infinite, contains objectively ( … ) the whole of nature, and the individual thoughts (cogitationes) of which unfold in the same way as nature itself.”
One of the basic principles of Mathematics is that when you perceive reality, you are actually studying the relationship between things, not the things themselves.
This has already happened. Metaphysics – “behind-the-physics” – that which is somehow hidden behind the phenomena of reality. This is the basis of all human knowledge. Anyone.
A person comes up with some IDEAS (so they say – “metaphysical ideas”), which are never-never! – can not be revealed in reality, but which-as a person assumes-allow you to explain the phenomena of reality. Let's say that Einstein writes in a popular book (I don't remember the name now) that in order to move on to a theoretical understanding of motion, you don't have to understand anything about motion yet, but only move on to a theoretical understanding of it! “physicists had to invent the metaphysical idea of an inertial frame of reference. Everyone knows in advance that we will NEVER encounter an absolutely straight and absolutely uniform movement in reality, but we must keep the metaphysical idea of such movement in mind – otherwise, we will not get any opportunity to understand at least something sensible and efficient about “movement as a real phenomenon”. Now, there were 100,500 such metaphysical ideas in the history of human cognition-Plato's “Eidos”, Anaxagoras ' “Nus”, Democritus ' “atom”, “caloric”, “fluid”, “ether”, etc. – and all of them were invented for the purposes of cognition, and they achieved their goals.
Bottom line: a metaphysical idea is something that obviously will never appear to us in reality, but can contribute to its explanation (plausible or mythological; because “God” is also a metaphysical idea, but provides a mythological explanation of real phenomena). Metaphysical ideas are invented “from the lantern”, usually by geniuses. They have the status of dogmas.