2 Answers

  1. “Spirit” in the view of European thinking is consciousness(thinking).Philosophy and the history of philosophy have been engaged, and are still engaged, in the experience of society's study of consciousness as a process (natural history), phenomenon, and soon, and its definitions in various forms.Everyone is engaged in the issues of “spirit”, since this substance is the most complex, has a capacity comparable to the infinity of human development and promises fabulous profits to fraudsters with the” smart ” exploitation of this area of consciousness.The task of science is to explain the essence of the historical experience of studying (understanding)consciousness, as a secondary (derived) phenomenon from material prerequisites that generally determine the essence and forms of the spirit(consciousness,thinking)of the universal(universal) and national,inherent in a particular nation or individual people, nationality.

  2. In my opinion, spirit is usually understood as one of the levels of abstraction of consciousness:

    1. matter as an image, an ontological definition of relations, concepts, terms, and knowledge
    2. soul as sensation, epistemological description of relationships, abstraction in the form of theoretical models of knowledge
    3. spirit as thought, epistemological meta-description of relations, abstraction over knowledge models, definition of boundaries and criteria of their truth
      In ancient filsophy, these levels are represented asMoirs that express randomness as a form of necessity.

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