2 Answers

  1. In 1945, the French poet of Romanian origin Isidore Izu founded an avant-garde art direction, which he calls “lettrism”. From the point of view of lettrism, language is dead, because it consists of words that have ready-made meanings.

    Izu encourages you to remember that words are made up of letters that don't have ready-made meanings. By manipulating letters rather than ready-made words, you can revolutionize poetry, and then language. Izu calls himself nothing less than the Messiah.

    However, quite quickly (by 1947) it became clear that Izu is not doing anything radically new – the results of the Lettrists ' work reproduce what was already done by Russian futurists thirty to forty years earlier. The language revolution project turns out to be a failure.

    Therefore, in 1952, the left wing split off from the Izu movement under the conditional leadership of Guy Debord. This left wing calls itself the “Lettrist International” and, since 1957, the Situationist international. During its history, 63 men, 7 women and 1 transgender person, citizens of 16 countries, have been members of the Situationist International.

    The international differed from the Lettrists in that Debord stated a simple thing: a revolution in language is not enough. It is necessary to expand the space of struggle, to revolutionize everyday life. Just as language consists of words with ready-made meanings, everyday life consists of situations in which a person is just learning to behave according to the given rules. The revolution in everyday life will consist in creating new situations.

    The works of sociologists of that time showed that the average man in the street, despite the apparent freedom, lives in a very closed world, he runs along the same routes, gets into the same circumstances.

    Deborah is not satisfied with this, and in 1956 he develops a “drift theory”. He defines drift as “a technique of high-speed passage through several environments.” Simply put, this is a loitering around the city – but one in which you go wherever your eyes look and find yourself in completely new situations for yourself:

    “Those who go adrift break for a longer or shorter time with the conventional motives for movement and action, as well as with their usual contacts, work and leisure, in order to obey the impulses of the territory and the encounters that occur on it.”

    When the “Lettrist International” took shape in the “Situationist International”, the goal of the movement was stated to”create situations, that is, fleeting life situations and transform them into feelings of excellent quality.”

    Situations are created by situationists using detournement. Detournement is a diversion, turning the patterns of art and life against them. A brilliant example of such an action is given in the comment to the answer.

    In 1967, Debord wrote the main situationist theoretical philosophical work, The Society of the Spectacle.

    The work is complex, but initially the performance is the simple opposite of the situation. A situation is a state of affairs that you have created yourself and enjoy it. Performance – ” as a concrete inversion of life, there is an autonomous movement of the inanimate.” – that is, something that is shown to you, making it impossible for you to influence it.

    In May 1968, student uprisings occur in Paris – the largest implementation of the principles of situationism.

    In 1972, the Situationist International disbanded, and in 1994, “Doctor of No Sciences” Guy Debord put a bullet in his head – or in the heart, I don't remember exactly.

    Some say that it was also the creation of a fleeting living environment and its transformation into feelings of excellent quality. They seem to be right.

  2. Situationism is a trend in left-wing thought, the main representative of which was Guy Debord.

    His main work on this topic was the book “Society of the Spectacle”. Guy Debord tries to describe capitalism in the post-industrial information society, a capitalism that has learned to turn into a commodity and thus neutralize rebellion against the system and use entertainment media to control the population, capitalism as a self-sustaining system. For him, the USSR and China are also capitalist countries that are doing the same thing, just in more grotesque forms.

    In Pelevin's “Generation P”, you can see Guy Debord's presentation in an extremely concise form:

    In the field of radical youth culture, nothing sells as well as a well-packaged and “politically correct” revolt against a world where political correctness reigns and ” everything is packaged for sale.

    At the same time, Deborah tries to find ways to deal with this world. What his methods look like in practice, you can see on the example of Banksy, I don't know if he has read The Society of the Spectacle, but he behaves as if he had.

    All you need to understand about the effectiveness of these methods is that the cost of the “Girl on the Balloon” after trying to destroy it increased by 40, it seems, times.

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