3 Answers

  1. The distinction is rather conditional and is made differently by different authors, while others generally use these terms as synonyms. But in general, we can say that ontology is concerned with the study of the general structure of an entity, and metaphysics is concerned with the existential propositions of the existence of a particular entity (Dasein)

  2. It's not a big difference.

    Metaphysics (over-physics) – is concerned with inventing hypotheses that can never be shown in physical reality, but which, as their inventors assume, will make it possible to explain physical reality, improve or supplement our knowledge of it. The concept was introduced by Aristotle, its meaning is quite unambiguous and has not changed since then.

    There are countless examples of metaphysical hypotheses in the history of human knowledge – the “Nus” of Anaxagoras, the “atom” of Democritus, the “ether”, the “caloric”, the “absolute motion”, the “force of attraction”, the “inertial frame of reference”, etc. – and all of them at one time played a unique creative role in the construction of the “Palace of Human Knowledge” (one of the metaphysical hypotheses listed above continues to play such a role today). Mathematics, starting with geometry, is one of the most advanced branches of metaphysics.

    Ontology is one of the three main branches of philosophical knowledge (the other two are epistemology and axiology), which deals with the interpretation of Being in general, that is, “how everything that exists is possible, including us.” As we can see, the boundary between metaphysics and ontology is not difficult to draw. The subject of ontology is “what is in reality, and how it is possible that it is”, the subject of metaphysics is “what can never be revealed in reality, but, presumably, can relate to it”.

    However, in the history of philosophy and science, metaphysical hypotheses have often (and almost always) become the basis for ontological theories and constructions (this is normal). For example, Leibniz's “pre-established harmony” is a pure metaphysical hypothesis on which his ontological views are based (plus the metaphysical idea of a “monad”). But in the twentieth century, phenomenology emerged, the largest branch of European philosophy, which laid the foundation for a new ontology-without relying on metaphysical hypotheses, as was the case in the previous ontology. This is mainly and primarily due to E. Husserl, M. Heidegger, and J. P. Blavatsky.To Sartre.

    Drawing the line of distinction between ontology (in its new capacity) and metaphysics has become quite simple.

    P.S. Oh! I remembered the same beautiful in the subject. The great Nietzsche wrote: “Grammar is a popular metaphysics. People say, ” lightning flashes.” But the sparkle is lightning!” He wittily called this “a false doubling of one phenomenon.” Thus, the foundation for a new ontology – now without metaphysical hypotheses (i.e., without “false doubles”), of course, was laid by Nietzsche. We owe it to him, too.

  3. There is no clear definition, but in general, metaphysics deals with how EVERYTHING works (in English-language philosophy, it is often described in one phrase What is there?): objects, their existence, properties, categories, space, time, causal relationships, etc. Epistemology, which answers the question “what can I know and how”, is also sometimes referred to as metaphysics.

    Ontology is a sub-section of metaphysics that deals mainly with existence and being – there are several answers on the topic here thequestion.ru

    In the history of philosophy, it has often happened that philosophers have defined these terms idiosyncratically – for example, Heidegger has a very specific understanding of ontology, and logical positivists used “metaphysics” as a dirty word.

Leave a Reply