3 Answers

  1. I will immediately make a reservation that there are different directions here and there, but among them there are those that – not even that they dominate [no one has measured this] – but form the face of these Christian denominations.

    Further, the general principle of all Christian ethics is to help one's neighbor to the point of forgetting oneself. The focus and nature of this assistance can be understood in different ways: who needs to be helped and how.

    For Catholicism, the calling card since about the 16th century is the ethics of merit. Everything must be earned. Help others to the extent that they deserve to be helped. A villain or just an artist with a pitiful look does not need to be helped [here, in particular, the difference from Orthodoxy]. Helping others on a general basis, in turn, accumulates into merit, for which you can receive the gift of special help – a personal vocation. The measure of your merits and the merits of others can be calculated. This is due to the attention to mathematics, the idea of purgatory, indulgences and many other interesting things.

    For Protestantism, the calling card is the Calvinist ethic of vocation. Serve people on a common basis [transfer an old lady across the road, donate blood, etc.] does not give anything, you need to find your own personal path, which is expressed, for example, in a profession. It is impossible to earn it, it is a gift that concerns only the chosen few. If you've found your calling, you're a wiener, and if you haven't, you're a loser. You need to help only those who will take your help. That is, you offer it to everyone, and they freely choose whether to accept it or not, and if they accept it, then you or someone else. This is the ethical and theological basis for a free market.

  2. The foundation of Catholic ethics is building a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. These relationships are very diverse, but if we talk about everyday practical ethics, here the most relevant moment is the relationship with Christ as a Teacher (Mentor, Rabbi, Master, Guru), imitating Him to the best of our abilities in order to become at least a little like Him. The most important thing here is to constantly place yourself in the presence of Jesus, to engage in dialogue with Him in prayer and reflection on His life, and to devote to Him not only the time allotted for prayer, but also the daily routine.

    What to read Catholic on the topic:

    1) the book “Imitation of Christ” by Thomas of Kemp”, it is considered one of the most significant, basic:

    https://predanie.ru/book/216938-o-podrazhanii-hristu/

    2) The pillar of Catholic moral theology, St. Francis de Sales, here is his book Guide to a Pious Life:

    https://refdb.ru/look/2297645-pall.html

    3) if you want the same thing in more familiar “Eastern” formulations, read the book “Invisible Warfare” by St. Theophan the Recluse, which is actually a translation of the Catholic book “Il combattimento spirituale” by Lorenzo Scupoli. I do not give a link to the book of Theophan the Recluse, it is available in any Orthodox online library. But here are two words about Lorenzo Scupoli:

    https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%BE_%D0%A1%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8

    4) if you want to say the same thing in a completely modern language, here is the super-popular book “Friends of God” by St. Josemaria Escriva (founder of the Opus Sei movement):�

    http://www.escrivaworks.ru/book/druzia_bozii-ch-1.htm

    5) well, a good review book on the topic, Jordan Omann “Christian spirituality in the Catholic tradition”:

    https://www.gumer.info/bogoslov_Buks/katholic/Aumann/index.php

  3. Catholic priests do not marry. Protestant clergy do not differ from ordinary citizens in this respect.

    The admission of new members to the church among Catholics is made through baptism. The age of the person being baptized does not matter. Protestants are baptized only at a conscious age.

    Catholics recognize “the equal authority of Holy Scripture and Holy Tradition. Protestants recognize only the Holy Scriptures.�

    Confession at least once a year in the presence of a priest is mandatory for Catholics. Protestants do not recognize intermediaries in communion with God.

    Catholics venerate icons, crosses, paintings and sculptures of saints and their relics. For Catholics, saints are intercessors before God. Protestants do not recognize icons and crosses (with very few exceptions) and do not venerate saints.

    Catholics recognize the cult of the Virgin Mary. For Protestants, the Mother of God is just a perfect woman. There is also no cult of saints.

    Catholics have a concept of posthumous sufferings of the soul. Protestants believe only in the Last Judgment.

    Protestants do not recognize icons, crosses, or venerate the relics of saints, as is customary among Catholics.

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