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  1. There is no such dispute. In the USSR, they liked to simplify everything (now, however, even more, but this does not concern philosophy yet), so they came up with a certain “main question of philosophy”: what is primary-matter or consciousness? But in other places, philosophers did not know that this question was the main one. But if you are referring to this “argument” – but it is not clear who is arguing with whom – then here it is: the materialists claimed that matter is primary, and consciousness is”a property of highly organized matter.” The idealists didn't say anything about it, but the materialists did say that they did say that consciousness is primary.

    In general, why all this was necessary for the materialists (they are correctly called “naive materialism”) is not entirely clear. I myself assume that it had something to do with Hegel – that everything is correct for him, but only from his philosophy it is necessary to take out “Absolute Spirit” and insert “Matter”instead. From this came the so-called “philosophy of Marxism-Leninism.” In short, the nonsense of a gray mare.

    UPD: Here's another thing. In philosophy (real philosophy), there are no “disputes” at all – in the sense of contrasting and clashing one point of view with another. Because, relatively speaking, all philosophers are right. Each concept is simply a view of an object from a different point of view, from a different angle, and these views cannot be “correct” or”not correct”. They are different. This philosophical tradition was laid down by Thales, when he gave his nephew, Anaximander, his work (where “everything is water”) to read and said: Now you write-but be sure to write differently.

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