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  1. You see, there are concepts at the foundation of human thinking whose meaning is established for us solely on the basis of their mutual opposition; in general, they are called “binaries”. For example, the most fundamental thing: “many” is something that is “not one”, and “unity” is when “not many” – and there is no other way to understand it.

    The concept of “matter” is just one of these concepts, which can only be determined by contrasting it with something else. And with what? Well, it is necessary to choose what to compare it with-to contrast it, so that it is more clearly defined. Naive materialists like to compare the concept of” spirit “with the concept of” matter ” (this is a trend in philosophy that exists only in Russia – as an atavism of Marxism-Leninism). Nothing can be understood from this juxtaposition, but one can only “think” (as Kant called it) in the spirit of the wise men from the fairy-tale film “Fire, Water and Copper Pipes” – like, “…this stick, therefore, is infinite and beginningless.” It is correct to contrast the concept of “matter “with the concept of” form”, as Kant did, in particular.

    Here is its definition of “shape” (I'm from memory, but correct):

    Form is the way in which the elements of matter are combined into a whole.

    As you can see, the concept of “form “was determined, exactly what, from its correlation with the concept of” matter ” (elements of matter). Accordingly, we can define” matter “”from the reverse”:

    MATTER is that from the elements of which an arbitrary formation of wholes is possible.

    Here. I came up with this right now, in my opinion, nitsche so-it turned out to be suitable. And about the” spirit ” let someone else explain.

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