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  1. The expression ” Zeitgeist “is very easily translated into Russian – “zeitgeist” and means almost the same thing that is intuitively grasped in such a phrase. Zeitgeist is the concept that every historical period is based primarily on something ideal (for example, a certain organically connected system of ideas or some mysterious entity, such as a spirit or soul). Later, Zeitgeist will be described as a certain thought tradition or cultural paradigm (a set of basic concepts, examples, and values).

    One way or another, the idea of the” zeitgeist ” is used when one believes that all typical manifestations of the epoch must have a single entity behind them. Hence the attempts to explain the popularity or failure of artists, politicians and scientists through “falling in/out of place” in the “zeitgeist”. And as a criticism, it is worth noting that such a view is based on simplifying or even ignoring the real social mechanisms for recognizing and promoting ideas and knowledge.

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