5 Answers

  1. National Socialism did not have any single concept, but was a hodgepodge of delusional theories put together for purely propaganda purposes. Most often, in connection with Nazism, they recall the teachings of Friedrich Nietzsche. His theory of the” will to power ” was highly regarded in Nazi circles, and his writings (pre-edited in the Nazi spirit) were constantly quoted and reprinted. But Nietzsche, for example, considered anti-Semitism a sign of stupidity. Other concepts were more influential.

    The main role was played by racial theory, the creator of which was the Frenchman Joseph Gobineau. Racism implies that people are divided into superior and inferior (mentally and physically handicapped). Mixing of races, from the point of view of Gobineau, leads to degradation-hence the Nazi “racial hygiene” and the policy of genocide of Jews and Slavs. The Nazis were most influenced by racism in the version of H. S. Chamberlain, an Englishman who married the daughter of the composer Wagner and supplemented racism with anti-Semitism, singing the” highest Aryan race ” of the Germans. The racial theory formed the basis of geopolitics (f.Ratzel, K. Haushofer — – a set of pseudoscientific ideas according to which the people (German) should expand their “living space” at the expense of others, seizing colonies. Social Darwinism, which explains the life of society from the point of view of the biological laws of natural selection: they say that the strongest survive, “justified” the “right” to these seizures. In fact, this theory does not work in human society: it is not the physically strong who survive and not by destroying the weak, but by working together.

    We should also recall the theories of the far-right philosophers and writers Oswald Spengler, Ernst Junger, Moeller van der Broek and a number of others. Thus, in The Decline of Europe, Spengler called for an end to democracy, which is leading Europe and the West to collapse, and the establishment of a leader's dictatorship. Junger showed the war as the main driving force for the development of the nation, sang of “military romance”, calling for a new war that “will revive the German nation”. Van der Bruck proclaimed a “conservative revolution” that would create a new empire, a ” Third Reich “that would finally establish an order worthy of the”highest German race.” All this was mixed with racism and anti-Semitism.

    Interestingly, many Nazi leaders were quite skeptical of the theories that they themselves propagated. For example, Hermann Goering, in response to an attempt by the SS to persecute General Milch, whose father was Jewish, said:: “In my Luftwaffe, I decide who is Jewish and who is not.” Milch served until the end of the war and even became a field marshal. And in a Nazi magazine in 1935, a confession was published that no differences between” Jewish blood “and” Aryan ” can be found in principle.

  2. And who else is at the core?… Do you read what you write? At the heart of any ideology are still “philosophies”, and not their authors “philosophers”. Or at least the works of philosophers… It's not very clever. The whole of Russia is reading…

  3. This ideology is not national socialist, but fascist. And it is based not on philosophers, but on the desire of big capital to solve its own problems, bypassing bourgeois democracy. To add something clever to the “justification” of your intentions and actions is not to put it as a basis.

  4. I will add a few more personalities who, like Nietzsche, were used for the ideological justification of the program of national socialism. First of all, it is, of course, Hegel with his statism and the ardent anti-Semite Duhring. In the ranks of the “accomplices” of Nazism, Kant is sometimes recorded – even during the First World War, he was attacked by V. F. Ern for developing a taste for militarism in the Germans, which directly follows from phenomenalism and the imperative, and later the Frankfurters criticized Kant's rationalistic project in a similar way. Non-philosophers include von Treitschke (anti-Semitism), Richard Wagner (anti-Semitism), and Karl Schmitt (statism and authoritarianism). In general, everyone was involved. But the lives of those who survived the 12 years of Nazism show that, as a rule, even those intellectuals who supported the Nazis 'rise to power in' 33 (like Schmitt and Heidegger) very quickly cooled down to Hitler, his policies and ideology.

  5. I'll tell you what I know, and let professional thinkers fill in the rest…

    When people talk about the philosophers of Nazism, they traditionally remember Friedrich Nietzsche. Indeed, Hitler felt sympathy for this philosopher, there is even a photograph in which the Nazi leader enthusiastically looks at the bust of Nietzsche. Also, some philosophers and historians write that many Nazi soldiers carried “Thus spake Zarathustra”in their backpack. Alas, Nietzsche is a vivid example of thoughtlessness and perversion of ideas. If we calmly and thoughtfully read this book and several other Nietzschean works, we will not find a single justification for the Nazi ideology, but rather its refutation. In more than one book, Nietzsche sharply criticizes contemporary Germany. It is doubtful that a person with such thoughts was the inspiration of pan-Germanism. There can still be a huge number of examples, and you can find them by reading a few books that are not very voluminous in the text of Nietzsche.

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