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  1. The idea of the unity of the world is present in many currents of European philosophy. In fact, the idea of the essential unity of the universe was the first principle, the first intuition, with which philosophy began. For example, the phrase of Thales (who is often called the first philosopher) that everything is made of water should probably be understood in the sense that everything we see in the universe, all the diversity of things around us, is basically one.

    And this idea, in fact, has never lost its defining significance for Western philosophy! For example, when a materialist asserts that everything consists of matter, he also asserts the essential unity of the world, only the materialist calls matter the common principle of which everything consists (substance).

    Explicitly, the thesis of the unity of the whole world was placed at the forefront of at least two major schools of ancient philosophy, where it was of central importance.

    First, in the philosophy of the Eleatics, who, based on the thesis “being is, non-being does not exist”, came to the conclusion that the world is strictly one (since the alternative to being would be non-being, and it, based on the original principle of this school, does not exist) and unchangeable. From this they came to rather paradoxical conclusions, for example, that movement is impossible. This gave rise to so-called” aporias”, i.e. logical paradoxes. For example, about Achilles and the turtle.

    Secondly, the concept of the One is of key importance in the philosophy of the Neo-Platonists (Plotinus and others). For the Neo-Platonists, the One is the primordial principle from which all the particular things that we observe in the world emanate.

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