- Why did everyone start to hate the Russians if the U.S. did the same thing in Afghanistan, Iraq?
- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
- Why did Blaise Pascal become a religious man at the end of his life?
- How do I know if a guy likes you?
- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
This is a very interesting question, and it is especially interesting how religious scholars will answer it. In theory, this is in their field of interest. For my part, I can say that in pagan religions there is no single concept of a deity, oddly enough.
Very few people understand this, even among the pagans themselves, it is rarely thought about, but the Scandinavian Aces, Vanir, Turs and Irish Tuatha De Dannan are not the same thing. Just as the Greek pantheon and the Egyptian gods are not the same thing.
In post-Christian times, we have the idea that there is a word “god” that denotes some kind of super-essence. Therefore, the gods of different peoples are such identical super-beings, only dressed in different national clothes. Meanwhile, each nation reached its own gods somehow independently, and not all the” gods ” that are called such. “Gods” is just an average term, very simplified and does not describe, in fact, anyone. After all, deities of different nations have their own names, descriptions, etymologies, and histories.
Directly answering the question, I would recommend to go to the deepest antiquity, somewhere to rock paintings and petroglyphs. Somewhere in that area, a sun-headed man was painted (a fairly popular motif). We can't say anything about that period, but you never know if they were sketches of their religious experiences (there are also such opinions).
The corresponding equivalents are already found in the oldest written monuments — Sumerian, Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Vedic, and Ancient Chinese. This means that by the time of the emergence of writing, they already existed. And what happened before that, it is hardly possible to establish, since such complex concepts can only be recorded in writing.
If we take into account that God – �is a status [see my answer to this topic], which can be assigned to any entity [including living people, natural and social phenomena, spheres of life, and even abstract concepts], then we can judge the existence of even a vague concept of “deity” by the very fact of worship. However, even here we are faced with a variety of interpretations regarding the material fragments of primitive life that have been found today. A number of scientists believe that traces of worship can be found already in the Paleolithic. If there is worship, then there is also the object of worship, that is, the deity.
There are archaeological finds that some researchers interpret as evidence of the existence of a bear cult among Neanderthals, but this is all written with a pitchfork on the water and is very controversial.
There are behavioral acts in chimpanzees that some researchers interpret as religious acts. But this is still more controversial.
Multiply this by the ambiguity of the concept of” god ” mentioned by Sergey Nikiforov in the next answer. If the pantheons of the Greeks and Scandinavians can still be reduced to a single Indo-European Vedic source, then with the gods of the Latin American Indians such a procedure is no longer feasible, hence the question-is it correct to consider them as entities of the same order?
And add to this the Indo-European two generations of gods – Chthonic and young-are they entities of the same order? Is it correct to say that the appearance of the first (and the myth can be interpreted as a story about the change of old traditions to new ones) is this the appearance of the concept of god, or should they still be considered something else, and only “young gods” can be fully called gods, while Chthonic ones are assigned this status after the fact, retroactively?
So your question is a good one, but it is hardly possible to give any satisfactory answer to it today-unless there has been a breakthrough in religious studies/anthropology that I don't know about.
Divine entities were invented by the ancestors of humans immediately after they gained the ability to separate their ideas about themselves, their place in the world (conscious) and the surrounding objective reality.
For a creature capable of self-creation, the need to determine its place in the world raises a natural question: who created the sky, the earth, the water, the trees, the animals, me? To explain this completely incomprehensible act of creation, demiurges-creators responsible for natural phenomena-were forced to be introduced. Moreover, to convey such considerations to relatives, there is absolutely no need for a rich vocabulary – a modest vocabulary, gesticulation and interjection hoots are quite enough.
I believe that the beginnings of religion appeared long before man evolved to homo sapiens, I think that both Pithecanthropes and Australopithecines already had them, and one of the first cults was, of course, cults generated by the most terrifying phenomena: thunderstorms and fire.
At the moment, the question has 34 answers. I've looked at all of them, and they generally don't repeat each other. At the same time, everyone has their own concept of the word “God”.
Here is which of them the author of the question had in mind? The word “god” is one of the most ambiguous words I know. Without specifying the context of “what the author meant”, it is not possible to answer the question exactly.
Without specifying – we can guess, but there is no exact date, it is only clear that it goes back centuries. When ancient man saw lightning strike a tree and fire appear, did he think of God?
The concept of boss / leader / leader – appeared from the very beginning of the existence of mankind – this concept is the basis of life.
The main meaning of this concept is that in all areas of life there is always a boss/leader/leader who makes fateful decisions.
You didn't put the question quite right. “God” is part of the more complex “religion”complex. And it doesn't make sense outside of it. Accordingly, it is necessary to ask- ” when did religions appear?” I won't say anything about dates. Even approximately, but, here, according to the “level of consciousness”…
Religion is primarily a description of the World. Its origin, its laws, Man's place in this world – all this is “religion.”
Accordingly, the first religious cults had to appear at the same time as the first cultures. I don't think they were Neanderthals, but the Cro – Magnons should have known the world by now.
The concept of god in one formulation or another exists as long as a reasonable person, which simultaneously answers the second part of the question – other types of ideas about God probably do not (probably – since we recognize that we do not yet know everything about the world). The fact is that God is an abstract concept, and no one else is capable of thinking abstractly (as far as we know) except for a person (and an adult, developed and mentally full-fledged). Young children do not yet think abstractly, people with impaired mental development, respectively, also, well, animals, even higher mammals, even primates are unlikely to think in this way.
There is evidence that some higher mammals (elephants, some species of monkeys) have funeral rituals, and on this basis it is assumed that they have an idea of death, the afterlife, and, consequently, of God. However, the ritual is primarily biological and physiological in nature, then social and last of all cultural (the order is determined by the stages of development of the ritual), so it can take place in the absence of philosophical or religious content.
The concept of God came to man through the worship of the sun. First came the realization that the sun is the father, the earth is the mother, and everything around them is their common children. People watched the sun, studied it, men tried to adopt its spirit, and it was then that people began to have gods.
The concept of GOD is quite definite! There was a word B in the proto-language. Ett pervoglagol, denoted coition. In this sense, it has also been preserved in the well-known Russian words, the word GOD comes from Bo se to, i.e., it is the one who performs the life-creating action. God-in the original sense means CREATOR! In the ordinary environment, the phallus creates life. He was worshipped during the phallic cult. They were worshipped not as a child-bearing organ, but as a symbol of the concept of the CREATOR, GOD.
When would the word “god” appear in humans? I think that this could only have appeared when the first homo sapiens appeared. The mind of a person is bound to a tree, he can think of everything, and a person can believe in it. Christianity is a fairly new world religion and I understand that this question was asked by them. With respect.
The word “God” was coined to define the unknown cause of those effects that, without understanding them, a person admired or feared. When this happened can be determined with the same accuracy as the time when the Darwinian monkey said its first word.
The materialistic “sapiens” is the only intelligent human being. Before this man, man did not exist. All these Neanderthals, Pithecanthropes, Ramapithecines, zinjanthropes, and a whole host of evolutionist apes have been alternately elevated to the throne of the human ancestor since the mid-19th century, and with the same inexorable sequence and immutability thrown off. And the most materialistic science.
We need to clarify the concept :=).
Now, when they say “god,” they mean one of three things::
This is either the name of someone/something “supernatural” (which will be discussed later), something/someone from the pile of the same “supernatural” that exists in the world of a certain group of people (this is how anthropologists understand the word), or the name of something/someone Unique, with superpowers, within the concepts formed in the so-called “monotheistic” religions, or the name of something/someone highly vague, but-presumably-making a pleasant exception for he believes so that this particular believer in the world will be happy :=).
On the “supernatural” – I refer to Pascal Boyer, “Explaining Religion”. The concept of ” supernaturals “(which does not necessarily include worship, “trust in”, the idea of a world-building role, etc.) has probably existed since ancient times, and is connected with the specifics of human thinking. The ordering of such representations (the formation of canonized schemes, “religions”) occurs when rather complex societies are formed (see Diamond). Specifically, the current concepts of God are the fruit of the complex and long development of Mediterranean civilizations (something about this-Tom Holland, ” In the Shadow of the Sword “(the Origin of Islam)).
And “God” is in today's brains… Well, ask the owners of these brains. How they ascribe to their God 1001 all-powerful, all-powerful and – of course-positive qualities, and then scurry like cockroaches when the lights are suddenly turned on, faced with the question of why and why their All-good God arranges on earth – from the very beginning of human existence – all these same people nasty things. My brain, with a malignant lesion of logic and empathy := ), this is not clear.
God is simply a word that denotes the sapiens ' belief in what they need right now(meat, water, heat).The concept of god has developed in modern man into something more global and less specific.
When we talk about the CONCEPT of “God”, we are not faced with its appearance (no one found it somewhere abandoned or lost). The concept can only appear as the acquisition of meaning, that is, the discovered reality of being, first becoming, then developing, and finally established in the universal consciousness of people. God, as a categorical concept, becomes the support of most other meanings and keeps a person in his vertical consistency, that is, in the unconditional recognition of all his own kind by people-people. The concept of “God”, in this context, is a symphonic synthesis of language, worldview and the birth of a new sociality and culture of people themselves. Now about the forerunner of the concept of “God” – it did not grow up in the field and did not fall from the sky. It was obtained by the very person who could become a symbol hunter (there were not many of them), enter into that very synergy, reach out to the great Silence of the world. Next, make clear to yourself the presence of the creative Principle, accept it, connect with it. Understand for yourself and share the essence of this secret with others in an accessible way. At the upper pole of the great Silence, the hunter discovers something that will later be recognized in his development and called God, but the path will not be close. Hence all the disputes of ethnographers, religious scholars, cultural scientists, philosophers, etc., about the fact of the appearance of God in protohistory and the history of mankind. From my point of view, the trajectories of God's Ways in this world begin to grow together with the very becoming of H. s. After all, the mind without support on the pole in itself and the pole (upper) outside of itself, it will not stay vertical, and a crawling mind (only in itself) is nonsense. Let me remind you of one of the principles of the Mahabharata: “There is no intelligence for the unassembled” – that which is not assembled, does not have integrity, is not able to create itself – cannot become intelligent. One of the goals Nature – to develop, prepare that being that is capable of gaining intelligence-to accept and privatize consciousness. Today we can assume three attempts of Nature on this path, the last one, relatively successful and with an unclear perspective, we are now talking about-this is the story of the enlightenment of H. S. (I believe that man in his becoming appears as a form of developing consciousness. At the same time, the cultural and social fabric is a necessary environment and a condition for such development). However, in the context of the controversy over the question “When did the concept of “God” appear in the existence of mankind…”, in my opinion, a more important question arises: “Why was God necessary in the history of mankind? Did it appear in History or together with humanity (with the world genesis, as such)?”. The answer is: from the concept of “God”, we go back to the generative (primary) symbol God and the principle, the factor God. This allows us to move on to a meta-view of God and his “place” in the construct of the universe and the formation of humanity. All of this will turn out to be synergistically related (here and later I omit the intermediate steps in the proofs). The stability of consciousness and reason for us and in us requires the ability to reflect – to see ourselves from the outside (to see what I see, to think about what I think, to experience what I experience, etc.). In this ability, we see ourselves and the Other, Others, as conditions of cooperation, mutual awareness and primary equality, that is, humanity. At the upper pole of reflection, we also find the meta-observer, the One who sees everything. He is the one before whom you cannot speak-he is the witness of the truth – she is your prada in your humanity. The principle of God permeates (co-exists) a person as long as he is true to his Name. Person. in this sense, a co-messenger to other people and to God. We get an interesting triad: Man-God-Another person. If we throw out God, we lose the unconditional regulator and witness of Measures. The primacy of human relationships easily devalues to the arbitrariness of interactions. Other important factors of humanization can also be mentioned, but we will stop here. CONCLUSION: without God (for atheists: Proto-conditions of World genesis) humanity, intelligence, consciousness are not established. Man and God are mutually conditioned necessities (one does not fully exist without the other).
2000 years ago, when humanity entered the age of Kali Yuga, the last stage of self-destruction, completely destroying man, becoming slaves.
I will make my own “five kopecks”, we will not consider the concept of “God” itself, which can be used in various meanings, for example, “supermaterial/other entity”, “Creator of the universe”, but we will limit ourselves to general religiosity. Just three facts 1) historians do not know any people / civilization of the past that does not have a religion 2) anthropologists do not know any modern tribes that are at the lowest stages of development (Amazon, Polynesia, Africa) 3) there are Neanderthal burials that are clearly of a ritual / religious nature…
That is, the concept of God was originally, and it is faith (plus reason, creativity, etc.) that distinguishes a person from an animal
If you look at it from a Christian point of view, the first thing you need to understand is that man from the very beginning of his creation was intelligent, (as they now say homo sapiens).
And this intelligent man was Adam ,( then Eve appeared).
And of course, man from the beginning believed in God, and it is the One God, and not paganism or the worship of stone or wood. (paganism came later, when man renounced God, that's when man began to worship nature or demons, but from the beginning it was not so).
If we take animals, then they are not intelligent beings, and by definition they cannot believe in God.
My version.The English still have the word “Bog” from “those” times, in our opinion, NOT CHANGED, and we read:”VOD”, – information. This is GOD . True, in English ” bog ” is a swamp. But even with us, “bo lo to” is GOd Lo to.” In the swamps of slOvne, the “deposed” god L. was “hidden” and “cheated” (hence the Magi, the meaning, and the purpose of and …ad infinitum). VODO-VEDAS-VOODOO. Information.
Read the Bible. The concept of God did not appear, it all started with Him. And the fact that people have such questions means that we don't know God, that's all. We are not familiar with It at all, and even manage to claim that It does not exist. Although it is not very reasonable to say this, since it is impossible to prove it.
Two unborn children debate in the womb:
But when we are born, mom will caress us, hug us,love us…
_ What mom?! What are you talking about?
_ Mom-she's so beautiful, her hands are warm…
Have you ever seen this mom? Wake up!
And then came the birth….
So it is with God. Many people do not believe in its existence. They argue, prove, come up with all sorts of theories, etc. And everything is much simpler. God speaks for himself through the Bible and the nature around us.
Read the Bible, observe and reflect on what you have read and seen.
He himself calls people to learn about Him and draw near to Him, that is, to try to be righteous in His eyes: “Seek the Lord when you can find Him; call on Him when He is near.
Let the wicked forsake his way, and the wicked his thoughts, and turn to the Lord, and he will have mercy on him, and to our God, for He abounds in mercy. ” (Isaiah 55: 6,7)
“The concept of god” – became a concept when faith in Him disappeared and religion came… People had faith and communion with God from the very beginning. But a person after the fall moves further and further away from God and comes up with crazy ideas like” everything happened out of nothing by itself”, without thinking that everything exists according to very well – thought-out laws that a person can only discover, and not create, because the laws by which everything exists and happens have already been thought out and all creation was created according to them-which screams about the Creator. It's just that God is infinitely bigger than your thinking and imagination, and it will never fit into this limited “box” that people who have lost God are trying to explain something to. But any honest scientist comes to the conclusion that everything is definitely created, and not built up by itself out of chaos…
It, the concept, appeared immediately after the realization of personal mortality, one's own impotence before the near end. Faced alone with an unsolvable problem, consciousness did what it could only do – it searched its memory and remembered that it had lived quite tolerably well not so long ago. It remembered its childhood. An overwhelming sense of dependence on all-powerful parents. The sweetness of submission, the bliss of love to the giver of life. The mind did not have anything else, no other experience of survival, and we must not forget to say that this experience, the experience of childhood, was the same for everyone-black and white, for everyone, so the concept of God, in fact, is the same for everyone. Sic.
No one can reliably answer this question. This is from the category of ” how and when did the language appear?”. You can draw a line along the Upper Paleolithic Revolution – the long explosion of Stone Age technology began about 50,000 years ago, and 30,000 years ago primitive art, rock art, flourished in full bloom. In theory , where there is art (probably at first closely intertwined with hunting magic – so paleoanthropologists suggest), there should also be some religious ideas: both require a certain level of abstract thinking. But that's exactly when the concept of God came into being… alas, a mystery.
It was there originally… Rather, such a concept or phenomenon as a person appeared in the existence of God … Based on what has been written, it becomes clear that the “non-sapiens” also had a God initially …
here's the answer from a Christian's point of view.you dear in your question laid a false statement laid in turn from the wrong premise.The premise is that you mean that God is an invention (creation,invention,fantasy).but this is not how questions are formulated.it would be more honest of you to ask the question this way.whether man created God or God created man.so a person can only invent, but for God nothing is impossible-He is the Creator of all things.so the second half of the question doesn't make any sense at all.God is the God of everything.
The God of all things was, is, and will be, and at all times there has been a revelation from God to people. And at all times there were atheists, and those who are with God. read the holy scriptures everything is written there.
The concept of ” God “belongs to a reasonable entity, since the genus-specific category of a person is “reasonable personhood”. Man has a rational soul, which is not made up of particles, and has a spiritual way of life (similar to the way of being of God). The human soul does not have the qualities of space – time : deterioration, improvement, extension, so the soul does not change in space. The soul changes in time, as a person is born and comes to the world of multiple phenomena, each in a certain historical period. A person can be good or evil, and these properties belong to a specific free person. Having a reasonable soul, a person has a special understanding of such concepts as ” value, moral status of their behavior and another person. Animals do not have the property of intelligence. The soul of an animal has only an animal and vegetable function and belongs to the genus-specific category of an animal (each according to its own species and genus) . Unlike the nature of the soul, the human body has a different nature, since the human body has a spatial quality (the body can get sick, die). Therefore, the human body belongs to space-time, just like an animal's. The rational soul of man participates in the intelligible world and has the possibility of communicating with Absolute Reason, that is, with God. Animals do not possess the property of communion with God, since this right is given only to man: “and God breathed a living soul into man.” Therefore, to ask such a question as “when did the concept of God appear in the existence of humanity and whether there was a non-Sapiens god” is not entirely correct.
The concept of ” God “belongs to a reasonable entity, since the genus-specific category of a person is “reasonable personhood”. Man has a rational soul, which is not made up of particles, and has a spiritual way of life (similar to the way of being of God). The human soul does not have the qualities of space – time : deterioration, improvement, extension, so the soul does not change in space. The soul changes in time, as a person is born and comes to the world of multiple phenomena, each in a certain historical period. A person can be good or evil, and these properties belong to a specific free person. Having a reasonable soul, a person has a special understanding of such concepts as ” value, moral status of their behavior and another person. Animals do not have the property of intelligence. The soul of an animal has only an animal and vegetable function and belongs to the genus-specific category of an animal (each according to its own species and genus). Unlike the nature of the soul, the human body has a different nature, since the human body has a spatial quality (the body can get sick, die). Therefore, the human body belongs to space-time, just like an animal's. The rational soul of man participates in the intelligible world and has the possibility of communicating with Absolute Reason, that is, with God. Animals do not possess the property of communion with God, since this right is given only to man: “and God breathed a living soul into man.” Therefore, to ask such a question as “when did the concept of God appear in the existence of humanity and whether there was a non-Sapiens god” is not entirely correct.
There is an atheistic answer, for example, here.
Semyonov, Yuri Ivanovich
The emergence of religion and its first, initial form – magic
In a nutshell: “Here a person is presented with what is usually called luck, fortune, luck. He may or may not be lucky. A person in such conditions does not go in the direction he needs, something is taking him somewhere, and it is not known where it will take him. Man in such conditions is at the mercy of accidents, in which the blind necessity of nature manifests itself. The latter dominates man in the form of accidents, making him its slave. The impotence of a person thus turns into his dependence on blind necessity, his lack of freedom. In this case, his practical activity is not free or dependent.”
And from the atheist's point of view, the attempt to master luck is the first religion, magic:”The first type is action magic, which is divided into two subtypes. The first and earliest subtype of action magic is facilitation magic. In this case, magical rites only complement sound actions aimed at achieving the desired result. The purpose of magical actions is to ensure the success of sound actions. These magical rites accompany sound actions and, according to people, contribute to their successful outcome. The second subtype of action magic is self – action magic. Magic rites do not accompany sound actions, but replace them. According to people, such magical actions alone are quite enough to cause the desired result. This is often the nature of malicious and love magic.
The other main type of magic is verbal or verbal magic. If action magic manifests itself in rituals, then word magic-in spells, spells, etc. It is also divided into accompanying magic, contributing when the purpose of the spell is to ensure the success of sound actions, and substitute magic, self-acting, when it is considered that spells and spells alone are enough to achieve the desired result.
Together with magic, a peculiar kind of knowledge emerged – the knowledge of what actions need to be performed or spells cast to ensure the achievement of the desired result – ritualism. Ritualism is inextricably linked with the belief in supernatural power and is inseparable from it. It not only did not help to increase the power of man over the world, but, on the contrary, was an obstacle to this. This knowledge was useless, empty. Initially, empty knowledge was reduced to ritual knowledge. Later, other forms of it appeared. The most recent form of empty knowledge is theology (theology).”
That is, from the point of view of an atheist, God is the unknown, on which the success of a person depends, and with this unknown, unarmed by historical materialism, a person tries to somehow agree. And you don't need to negotiate – this is empty knowledge.
There is a Christian point of view. The gods of old are demons. These are the fallen angels who went after Lucifer. Since these demons have the power to influence people, people began to communicate with them in order to achieve their goals. Every nation, every tribe, has chosen its own demon to communicate with. And only the Romans worshipped all demons. And all of them were sacrificed. Only the forefathers, Adam, his children, and Noah, communicated with the real God. After Noah, God gave people the freedom to seek God in their own ways. And only Abraham was worthy to listen to God. And to Moses and the prophets God gave the first Revelation. The incarnate Word of the Pre-Eternal gave humanity a new full Revelation, sufficient for the salvation of the human soul.
For mankind, the concept of “God” appeared immediately with the creation of the first people, Adam and Eve, who knew God personally and communicated with Him.
God has always existed, because It is eternal.
Those who are generally capable of understanding such serious questions as the existence of God, the meaning of life, etc., etc. can know about God, that is, if we are talking about animals that we know, the answer is negative.
But besides man, other intelligent creatures created by Him also know about God.
The Gobekli Tepe temple complex was built in the south-east of Turkey about 12,000 years ago and is the oldest creation of human hands. Mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses roamed around, man did not know agriculture and had not yet tamed a single animal, but he was already erecting temples. Conclusion: it was religion that gave birth to our entire civilization !
Immediately after the creation of man on the sixth day, Adam knew God.
No one else has a Worship service and worship of God.
And it is precisely the presence of religion and ritual burials, including, that scientists determine the difference between humans and animals, because this is what determines the belief in God and the afterlife.
Or simply put, there are no and never have been human communities that do not have these traits, and there are no animals that do.
As such, the concept of god came with the appearance of the concept of wealth. The realization that you, your family, have something more, better than others. Bogatyr, bully, bull are the same root words with wealth and God. But this is in the Slavs. In other languages, it is something radiant, higher. The miracle is wonderful. Yes, it is superior, but only to any person, and not a God-given superiority to you.�
I believe that the concept of “god” or otherwise “higher power” appeared in a person when he became able to identify himself in the world around him. From that moment on, a person, at the level of the instinct of self-preservation, which is also possessed by the entire other animal and plant world, reacted to certain natural phenomena that threatened his life. Such situations were imprinted in the human mind, and with repeated repetition of them, a person gradually developed a system of actions that allowed him to save life more effectively than in the rest of the animal and plant world. At the same time, the ability of a person not only to accumulate his life experience, but also to analyze it, allowed him to systematize the occurrence of natural phenomena, determine their precursors and frequency, and build his life taking into account these manifestations. In my opinion, without realizing the nature of environmental phenomena, a person came to the erroneous conclusion about the existence of” higher forces “or” god”, which send a person a whole series of tests and on which his existence depends. Unfortunately, the further development of human thinking took a simplified form, in the form of the emergence of many religions among a particular people living in a particular territory, which distinguishes humans from the animal and plant world. As a result, the human thinking ability was “preserved” for millennia, as we are witnessing today.
God is something that man cannot think higher than.
In The Essence of Christianity, Ludwig Feuerbach argues that it is not God who created man, but man creates God for himself.
It was this work that finally transformed the former idealists and Young Hegelians of Marx and Engels into materialists.
What Engels wrote about in his work Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy
The creation of God is an inherent property and need of the human mind.
What will be the product of the mind's activity depends only on the degree of its development.
For a newly born child, God is its mother.
More precisely, that vague spot in a poorly seeing newborn that gives him warmth, food and love.
A limited mind creates its own gods out of objects, natural phenomena, animals, and people around it.
An outstanding person creates Faith and Religion.
From this point of view, the communist ideology created by the outstanding minds of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin is nothing but a new religion.
With my full understanding that Marxism-Leninism itself is a true, coherent, scientific and proven in practice materialist teaching about capital, the class struggle and the historical inevitability and necessity of the proletarian revolution, the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the construction of communism.